Most Viewed: Last TWO YEARS
  • Review|Open Access

    Radiological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in non-cirrhotic patients

    Alba Castán, Ylenia Navarro, Luis Sarría, Raquel Larrosa, Mario Serradilla, Alejandro Serrablo
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) arising in non-cirrhotic livers is relatively rare. Compared with HCC arising in cirrhotic livers they have some quirks. HCC in healthy livers are large tumors at diagnosis, and are detected due to the onset of abdominal symptoms, outside of any scheduled monitoring program. In non-cirrhotic patients, HCC has the same appearance as the classic image of cirrhotic HCC substrate. The presence of capsule, extensive intratumoral necrosis and typical behavior in the dynamic study after administration of intravenous contrast are present in most of the non-cirrhotic... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:1-17. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2015.62
    Published on: 12 Jan 2017  | Viewed:19752  | Downloaded:378
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  • Minireview|Open Access

    Updates on hepatorenal syndrome and strategies bridging to liver transplantation

    Chung Yeung Cheung, Kenneth S.H. Chok
    Hepatorenal syndrome is not an uncommon life-threatening complication arising from liver cirrhosis. The diagnostic criteria for this syndrome have been revised throughout the years, with recent revisions aimed at improving earlier diagnosis and treatment. Liver transplantation remains the only definitive treatment for hepatorenal syndrome. Due to the scarcity of liver grafts, many patients die waiting. This review focuses on the different strategies to bridge patients to liver transplantation and to improve the postoperative outcome. Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:67-72. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2016.48
    Published on: 12 Apr 2017  | Viewed:10230  | Downloaded:580
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  • Review|Open Access

    Management of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: review of current and potential therapies

    Asmaa Gomaa, Imam Waked
    Over the past few years, despite improvement in screening and diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), advanced stage remains the most common presentation at diagnosis, with limited management options, especially options available to patients in limited resource countries. There is currently no effective systemic chemotherapy, targeted, or immunologic therapy for advanced stage HCC. Sorafenib is the only approved front-line molecular-targeted treatment,with slight survival benefit. Regorafenib has recently been approved as second line therapy for HCC after failure of sorafenib. Ongoing... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:112-22. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.03
    Published on: 15 Jun 2017  | Viewed:8988  | Downloaded:774
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  • Topic: Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of liver fibrosis|Open Access

    Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of liver fibrosis

    Jenny Yeuk-Ki Cheng, Grace Lai-Hung Wong
    Liver fibrosis is the center of diagnosis and management of essentially all chronic liver diseases. While liver biopsy examination still has a role in diagnosis and drug development, it is replaced by non-invasive assessments of liver biopsy in majority of the clinical scenarios. Radiological approaches, namely transient elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse imaging, shear wave elastography, magnetic resonance elastography provide accurate diagnosis of advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. Serum test formulae based on common laboratory parameters or more specialized parameters including... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:156-69. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.27
    Published on: 8 Aug 2017  | Viewed:6977  | Downloaded:446
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    In vitro antitumor efficacy of Kochia indica extract on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line with or without 5-fluorouracil

    Nabil Mohie Abdel-Hamid, Ghada A. Tabl, Yousry E. El-Bolkiny, Walaa O. Zeina
    Aim: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and the sixth most common cancer worldwide. The resistance to chemotherapy is a major obstacle in the treatment of HCC, necessitating the discovery of additional agents. There is a growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicine worldwide. Therefore, the aim of present study was focused on the confirmation of the suitability and validity of the new markers which would be achieved by demonstrating their significant change and reproducible expression during disease and disease management. Methods:... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:149-55. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2016.50
    Published on: 21 Jul 2017  | Viewed:5711  | Downloaded:178
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  • Viewpoint of Editor-in-Chief|Open Access

    Cancer Evo-Dev, a novel hypothesis derived from studies on hepatitis B virus-induced carcinogenesis

    Guang-Wen Cao
    Non-resolving inflammation, which may be maintained by infection, pollution, and metabolic stimulants and their interactions with immunogenetic predisposition, provides a fertile field for cancer development. This is strongly evident in hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, the framework of a hypothesis called Cancer Evo-Dev is presented, based on the advances in hepatitis B virus-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Several aspects central to this theory are as follows: (1) immune imbalance caused by the interaction of immunogenetic predispositions and hepatitis B virus infection maintains... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:241-59. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.45
    Published on: 27 Oct 2017  | Viewed:4930  | Downloaded:187
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  • Topic: Novel Approaches for HCC|Open Access

    Immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: the force awakens in HCC?

    Lynn G. Feun, Ying-Ying Li, Medhi Wangpaichitr, Chun-Jing Wu, Niramol Savaraj
    Systemic therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been disappointing. The only drug approved by Food and Drug Administration recently has been sorafenib. Sorafenib has modest benefits with a low response rate and an improvement in time to progression of only 2-3 months. Multiple randomized trials, which compare the new agent to sorafenib as either first line or second line therapy, have been negative, showing no improved clinical benefit. Recently, in a large phase III randomized trial, regorafenib has shown superiority to placebo as a second line treatment for HCC. However, this drug... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:43-51. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2016.45
    Published on: 22 Mar 2017  | Viewed:4873  | Downloaded:966
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  • Review|Open Access

    Reducing liver cancer risk beginning at birth: experiences of preventing chronic hepatitis B virus infection in China

    Chunfeng Qu, Zhongping Duan, Kun Chen, Huaibin Zou
    In China, the death numbers due to primary liver cancer every year account for more than half of this disease burden worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the major histological type of primary liver cancer. In the Chinese population, at least 85% HCC cases are due to chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), most of which were acquired in the perinatal period or in early life. As of January 1992, HBV immunization of newborns was introduced to the national Expended Program of Immunization of China. Prior to this program, the Qidong County in China conducted an hepatitis... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:228-40. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.41
    Published on: 25 Oct 2017  | Viewed:4646  | Downloaded:144
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Evaluating normalization approaches for the better identification of aberrant microRNAs associated with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Jing Shen, Qiao Wang, Irina Gurvich, Helen Remotti, Regina M. Santella
    Aim: Dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but only a small proportion have been confirmed. An appropriate normalizer is crucial to determining the accuracy and reliability of data from miRNA studies. Methods: Different normalization strategies were used to validate genome-wide miRNA profiles in HCC tumor and non-tumor tissues, and to determine the consistency and discrepancy of data on dysregulated miRNAs. Results: Two sets of stable miRNAs (miR-30c/miR-30b and miR-30c/miR-126) were identified in HCC tissues by geNorm and NormFinder tools,... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2016;2:305-15. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2016.28
    Published on: 18 Nov 2016  | Viewed:4538  | Downloaded:221
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Laparoscopic liver resection with lymph node dissection for gallbladder tumors suspected to be T1b/T2 carcinoma

    Masashi Isetani, Zenichi Morise, Akihiko Horiguchi
    Aim: The short-term perioperative results of laparoscopic treatment of gallbladder (GB) carcinoma were evaluated to determine whether this technique can be a feasible treatment option. Methods: Ten patients with fundus/body GB tumors (GBTs) underwent laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) and lymph node dissection. Additionally, 124 patients underwent LLR for liver tumors. These 124 LLRs included 79 partial resections (PRs), 11 left lateral sectionectomies (LLSs), 25 anatomical resections (ARs), and 9 small ARs (SARs). The operation time (OT), intraoperative blood loss (BL), and postoperative... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:170-7. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.17
    Published on: 9 Aug 2017  | Viewed:3679  | Downloaded:108
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Clinical and molecular sub-classification of hepatocellular carcinoma relative to alpha-fetoprotein level in an Asia-Pacific island cohort

    Scott T. Nishioka, Miles M. Sato, Linda L. Wong, Maarit Tiirikainen, Sandi A. Kwee
    Aim: Increased serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels are associated with specific molecular sub-classes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), supporting AFP as a predictive or therapeutic biomarker for precision treatment of this disease. Considering recent efforts to validate HCC molecular classification systems across different populations, we applied existing signature-based classification templates to Hawaii cohorts and examined whether associations between HCC molecular sub-class, AFP levels, and clinical features found elsewhere can also be found in Hawaii, a region with a unique... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:1. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.46
    Published on: 12 Jan 2018  | Viewed:3560  | Downloaded:152
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  • Review|Open Access

    Treatment of high-burden hepatocellular carcinoma: an oncologist perspective

    Landon L. Chan, Stephen L. Chan
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is recognized as a major global healthcare burden. Although there have been tremendous improvements in cancer screening and treatment, HCC mortality rate remains high. Many patients with HCC present late to medical attention and thus are not candidates for curative treatment. They typically have high tumor burden at presentation showing heterogeneity in anatomical factors and biochemical profile. Despite the relatively poor prognosis for these patients, significant improvements can still be made in survival if the optimal treatment modality is chosen.... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Huge and Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:5. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.49
    Published on: 7 Feb 2018  | Viewed:3313  | Downloaded:156
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Liver transplantation in acute-on-chronic liver failure

    Roger Williams
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:90-4. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.13
    Published on: 17 May 2017  | Viewed:3095  | Downloaded:212
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  • Cohort Profile|Open Access

    Qidong hepatitis B virus infection cohort: a 25-year prospective study in high risk area of primary liver cancer

    Tao-Yang Chen, Geng-Sun Qian, Chun-Sun Fan, Yan Sun, Jin-Bing Wang, Pei-Xin Lu, Xue-Feng Xue, Yan Wu, Qi-Nan Zhang, Yan Jin, Yi-Qian Wu, Yu Gan, Jian-Quan Lu, Thomas W. Kensler, John D. Groopman, Hong Tu
    Qidong hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection cohort (QBC) is a prospective community-based study designed to investigate causative factors of primary liver cancer (PLC) in Qidong, China, where both PLC and HBV infection are highly endemic. Residents aged 20-65 years, living in seven townships of Qidong, were surveyed using hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) serum test and invited to participate in QBC from June 1991 to December 1991. A total of 852 and 786 participants were enrolled in HBsAg-positive and HBsAg-negative sub-cohorts in May 1992, respectively. All participants were actively... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:4. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.50
    Published on: 26 Jan 2018  | Viewed:3072  | Downloaded:133
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  • Review|Open Access

    Direct antiviral therapy for hepatitis C and hepatocellular carcinoma: facing the conundrum

    Federica Buonfiglioli, Stefano Brillanti
    Direct antiviral therapy has dramatically changed our possibility to eradicate hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in all stages of chronic liver disease, with sustained virological response rates well above 90%. HCV eradication should lead to a better prognosis even after cirrhosis has established, including a reduced risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Unfortunately, during the last two years different reports have raised the concern about a possible increased risk of developing HCC in cirrhotic patients treated with direct antivirals. In this review, we have evaluated the... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:6. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.42
    Published on: 10 Feb 2018  | Viewed:3050  | Downloaded:206
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Late recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation

    Julia A. Zhang, Sandi A. Kwee, Linda L. Wong
    Aim: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide and liver transplant (LT) prolongs survival. However, 15-20% will experience recurrent HCC, most occurring within 2 years of LT. HCC patients with late recurrences (> 5 years after LT) may have distinctive clinical/biological characteristics. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted of 88 patients who underwent LT for HCC during 1993-2015, analyzing demographics, clinical factors, explant pathology, and outcome. Results: Median follow-up was 6.4 years. HCC recurred in 15 (17.0%) patients with... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:58-66. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.05
    Published on: 10 Apr 2017  | Viewed:3029  | Downloaded:209
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  • Review|Open Access

    Novel predictive and prognostic strategies of hepatitis B virus related hepatocellular carcinoma

    Wen-Bin Liu, Fan Yang, Ding-Yi Shao, Guang-Wen Cao
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy and an important cause of cancer death worldwide. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the major cause of HCC. Recent studies of HBV-induced carcinogenesis not only discovered many new biomarkers but also developed a novel theory: Cancer Evolution-Development (Cancer Evo-Dev). Cancer Evo-Dev provides an evolutionary insight of developing more reasonable predictive and prognostic strategies. Characterizing chronic inflammatory microenvironment of cancer evolution, genetic polymorphisms of inflammatory factors, and HCC-related HBV... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2016;2:331-40. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2016.38
    Published on: 23 Dec 2016  | Viewed:2992  | Downloaded:189
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Use of gadobenate dimeglumine dynamic MRI for detection of early hepatocellular carcinoma in atypical hepatic focal lesions

    Mohamed F. El-Gazzar, Mohamed Ahmed Samy Kohla, Mahmoud M. El-Sakhawy, Mohamed M. Husseiny, Reda R. H. Yousef, Safinaz H. El-Shorbagy
    Aim: Gadobenate dimeglumine (multihance) is a contrast medium which can be used not only as an extracellular contrast agent for dynamic imaging of the liver, but also as a liver specific agent for the acquisition of hepatobiliary-phase images which are more helpful in evaluation of small atypical hepatic focal lesions equal or less than 3 cm. The authors tried to evaluate multihance dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a new modality in early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Thirty cirrhotic patients with small hepatic focal lesions (less than 3 cm in diameter),... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:123-8. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.08
    Published on: 26 Jun 2017  | Viewed:2956  | Downloaded:161
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Antioxidant activity and free radical-scavenging of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) in hepatocellular carcinoma rats model

    Hanaa A. Hassan, Nermin E. Ghareb, Ghassan F. Azhari
    Aim: Oxidative damage of cellular components by free radicals and other reactive oxygen molecules is believed to be associated with the development of degenerative diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and free radical scavenging activity of cape gooseberry juice (CGJ) in diethylnitrosamine-(DENA) and CCl4 (3 mL/kg b.w.)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) rats model. Methods: The rats were divided into 4 groups (6 rats each group). Group 1 (control): the rats of this group did not receive any treatments; group 2 (CGJ): rats were daily... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:27-33. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2016.33
    Published on: 28 Feb 2017  | Viewed:2770  | Downloaded:196
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the evaluation of vascularization of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Francesco Loria, Giuseppe Loria, Salvatore Basile, Giuseppe Crea, Luciano Frosina, Francesca Frosina
    Aim: Early individualization of hepatocellular carcinoma is crucial to obtain good therapeutic results, thanks to several options such as percutaneous therapies, surgical resections and transplant. Aim of this study is to evaluate the vascularization of hepatocarcinoma using contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in comparison with multislice computed thomography (MSCT). Methods: Between January 2009 and May 2014, 67 patients affected by hepatocarcinoma, who presented an overall of 92 nodules, were examined and enrolled in the study. Results: There was a significant difference in the... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2016;2:316-22. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2016.27
    Published on: 22 Nov 2016  | Viewed:2739  | Downloaded:171
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Hepatocellular carcinoma in the setting of interferon-free treatment for chronic HCV hepatitis - experience of a single center

    Elena Laura Iliescu, Adriana Mercan-Stanciu, Letitia Toma, Elena Simona Ioanitescu, Radu Dumitru, Daniel Rusie
    Aim: This study aims to analyze the particularities of hepatitis C induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), developed during or after treatment with direct-acting antivirals. Methods: We conducted an observational prospective study on 278 patients, who underwent treatment for hepatitis C related liver cirrhosis and respectively for F3 chronic hepatitis C. Liver status was assessed using biological parameters and imagistic evaluation (ultrasonography, computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging). Results: The follow-up time was 14 months. Before therapy, 69.3% of the cirrhotic... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:3. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.48
    Published on: 18 Jan 2018  | Viewed:2647  | Downloaded:97
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Detection of urine DNA markers for monitoring recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma

    Hie-Won Hann, Surbhi Jain, Grace Park, Jamin D. Steffen, Wei Song, Ying-Hsiu Su
    Aim: This study aimed to explore the potential of detecting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-associated DNA markers, TP53 249T mutations and aberrant methylation of RASSF1A and GSTP1 genes, for monitoring HCC recurrence. HCC remains a leading cause of death worldwide, with one of the fastest growing incidence rates in the US. While treatment options are available and new ones emerging, there remains a poor prognosis of this disease mostly due to its late diagnosis and high recurrence rate. Although there are no specific guidelines addressing how HCC recurrence should be monitored, recurrence... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:105-11. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.15
    Published on: 6 Jun 2017  | Viewed:2633  | Downloaded:247
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  • Review|Open Access

    Role of early growth response 1 in liver metabolism and liver cancer

    Nancy Magee, Yuxia Zhang
    The liver is an essential organ for nutrient and drug metabolism - possessing the remarkable ability to sense environmental and metabolic stimuli and provide an optimally adaptive response. Early growth response 1 (Egr1), an immediate early transcriptional factor which acts as a coordinator of the complex response to stress, is induced during liver injury and controls the expression of a wide range of genes involved in metabolism, cell proliferation, and inflammation. In support of an important role of Egr1 in liver injury and repair, deficiency of Egr1 delays liver regeneration process.... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:268-77. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.36
    Published on: 20 Nov 2017  | Viewed:2560  | Downloaded:133
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Congenital absence of the portal vein complicated by hepatocellular carcinoma in the liver of an adult woman: review of imaging, literature and management

    Ankit Mehta, Shree R. Venkat, Lorraine Portelance, Lynn G. Feun
    We present a case of absence of the portal vein and Laennec’s cirrhosis in a 51-year-old female who was diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Only 101 cases of this malformation of the splanchnic vasculature have been reported of which 4 were reported to have HCC. Patient had disease progression while waiting for a liver transplant. Patient was treated with 3 separate conventional transarterial chemoembolization procedures at an outside hospital. At our institution, radioembolization of the right hepatic lobe was performed. She succumbed to liver insufficiency 8 years after being... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches for HCC
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:7. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.35
    Published on: 27 Feb 2018  | Viewed:2494  | Downloaded:107
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Hepatocellular carcinoma following direct anti-viral for hepatitis C treatment: a report of an Egyptian case series

    Eman A. Rewisha, Maha M. Elsabaawy, Omar Elshaarawy, Ayat Abdullah, Dalia M. Elsabaawy, Omkolsoum M. Alhaddad
    Egypt had been vexed by the highest load of chronic hepatitis C in the world. It represents a vast market of the new direct-acting anti-viral drugs (DAAs); effectively treating chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Eradication of HCV in Egypt has been challenged by the observed increased diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in relation to DAAs therapy. This is the first Egyptian report annotating to a series of sixteen chronic HCV infected cases without a diagnosis of HCC before DAAs therapy and unexpected development of HCC during or after completion of DAAs therapy. Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:178-81. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.18
    Published on: 11 Aug 2017  | Viewed:2314  | Downloaded:276
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  • Review|Open Access

    Roles of p53 in extrinsic factor-induced liver carcinogenesis

    Tim Link, Tomoo Iwakuma
    Liver cancer remains one of the most common human cancers with a high mortality rate. Therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain ineffective, due to the heterogeneity of HCC with regard to both the etiology and mutation spectrum, as well as its chemotherapy resistant nature; thus surgical resection and liver transplantation remain the gold standard of patient care. The most common etiologies of HCC are extrinsic factors. Humans have multiple defense mechanisms against extrinsic factor-induced carcinogenesis, of which tumor suppressors play crucial roles in preventing normal cells... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:95-104. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.07
    Published on: 6 Jun 2017  | Viewed:2186  | Downloaded:130
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Association of serum levels of transforming growth factor β1 with disease severity in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Mohamed Ahmed Samy Kohla, Ahmed Attia, Nehad Darwesh, Manar Obada, Hossam Taha, Marwa F. Youssef
    Aim: Transforming growth factor (TGF) is overexpressed by tumor cells like other proteins and growth factors. TGF-β1 is then activated in the extracellular compartment but is unable to control cell proliferation because of the absence or low level of TGF-β1 receptors on the plasma membrane of malignant hepatocytes. This potential mechanism might interrupt the autocrine regulation loop of TGF-β1 and its blocking effect on cell proliferation. TGF-β1 is a multifunctional cytokine involved in the regulation of growth and differentiation of both normal and transformed cells. This study aimed to... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:294-301. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.40
    Published on: 12 Dec 2017  | Viewed:2145  | Downloaded:123
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    MELD score and AST-to-platelet ratio index predict long-term survival in patients with a small hepatocellular carcinoma following non-transplant therapies: a pilot study

    Joy Sarkar, Thomas DeLeon, Linda L. Wong
    Aim: Liver transplantation (LT) is the most effective treatment for long-term survival from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, insufficient donors limit therapy. The authors sought to identify characteristics that predicted long-term survival after non-transplant therapies in patients with small HCC. Methods: In a database of 1,050 HCC patients, the authors identified those with single HCC ≤ 3.0 cm, who underwent hepatic resection (HR, n = 16), radiofrequency ablation (RFA, n = 55), or LT (n = 23) with 5-year follow-up. Overall survival (OS) and odds-ratios (OR) for survival after... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:79-85. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.06
    Published on: 9 May 2017  | Viewed:2106  | Downloaded:140
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Comparison of p53 and prohibitin expression in the spectrum of hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Lívia Maria Della Porta, Fernando Silva Ramalho, Carlos Augusto Oliveira, Deisy Mara Silva, Marlei Josiele Augusto, Leandra Náira Zambelli Ramalho
    Aim: To investigate the correlation of p53 and prohibitin (PHB) expression in the spectrum of hepatitis, cirrhosis, and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Hepatic biopsies from patients with HCC (n = 60), cirrhosis (CIR, n = 30), hepatitis C virus (HCV, n = 30), and normal livers (NL, n = 20) were examined for immunohistochemical expression of RelA/p65, tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1), TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), p53, and PHB. The samples were also analysed by nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) Southwestern histochemistry and a transferase-mediated... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:34-42. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2016.39
    Published on: 28 Feb 2017  | Viewed:2040  | Downloaded:138
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  • Review|Open Access

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: review and update

    Vincenzo Cardinale, Maria Consiglia Bragazzi, Guido Carpino, Sabina Di Matteo, Diletta Overi, Lorenzo Nevi, Eugenio Gaudio, Domenico Alvaro
    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a heterogeneous group of malignancies that could develop at any level from the biliary tree. CCA is currently classified into intrahepatic (iCCA), perihilar and distal on the basis of its anatomical location. Of note, these three CCA subtypes have common features but also important inter-tumor and intra-tumor differences that can affect the pathogenesis and outcome. A unique feature of iCCA is that it recognizes as origin tissues, the hepatic parenchyma or large intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, which are furnished by two distinct stem cell niches, the... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Liver Cancer
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:20. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.46
    Published on: 19 Jun 2018  | Viewed:1707  | Downloaded:198
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  • Review|Open Access

    Fat and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Clara Balsano, Cristiana Porcu, Silvia Sideri, Simona Tavolaro
    Obesity and diabetes are associated with the onset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These two illnesses correlate also with the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Currently, NAFL is considered the leading form of chronic liver disease in the Western industrialized countries. Insulin resistance is the common pathogenic factor among these three pathologies. NAFL is characterized by fat accumulation in the liver that involves greater than 5% of the liver parenchyma with no evidence of hepatocyte injury. However, NAFL may progress toward non-alcoholic steatohepatitis... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Liver Cancer
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:38. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.51
    Published on: 25 Jul 2018  | Viewed:1703  | Downloaded:149
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  • Review|Open Access

    Understanding the inflammation-cancer transformation in the development of primary liver cancer

    Hong-Jin Chen, Ming-Hua Hu, Fang-Gui Xu, Hao-Jun Xu, Jun-Jun She, Hong-Ping Xia
    Primary liver cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. China has more than 55% liver cancer cases globally. The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was caused by a variety of risks factors, including chronic inflammation by virus, alcohol consumption and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Emerging evidence has notarized inflammation as a critical component of HCC progression. The development of HCC is a multistep process which may originate from liver chronic injury and inflammation to subsequent fibrosis and/or cirrhosis and finally HCC. A large number... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:29. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.18
    Published on: 5 Jul 2018  | Viewed:1684  | Downloaded:92
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Effect of obesity on perioperative outcomes after laparoscopic hepatectomy

    Seeyuen J. Lee, Adam Hauch, Erica Kane, Christoper DuCoin, Michael Darden, Geoffrey Parker, Emad Kandil, Joseph F. Buell
    Aim: Laparoscopic hepatectomy is increasing in utilization, however the procedure has not been adequately examined in the obese patient. This study aims to analyze the effect of obesity on perioperative outcomes after laparoscopic hepatectomy. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 396 laparoscopic hepatectomies in normal [body mass index (BMI) < 25], overweight (BMI ≥ 25), obese (BMI ≥ 30), and severely obese (BMI ≥ 35) patients using multivariate regression models to determine the risk factors for post-operative complications. Results: Normal BMI (n = 78; 20%), overweight (n = 209; 52%),... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2016;2:323-7. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2016.34
    Published on: 13 Dec 2016  | Viewed:1667  | Downloaded:121
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  • Topic: Management of Huge and Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma|Open Access

    Surgical strategy for huge and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma in Hong Kong

    Kenneth S.H. Chok
    In Hong Kong, surgical resection is the core curative treatment for huge and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). For tumors measuring 10 cm or above, major hepatectomy is usually required, but a future liver remnant not large enough will preclude the operation. Hypertrophy of future liver remnant is a way to render more patients operable, and measures include portal vein embolization and associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy. For HCC that has invaded a major vessel, en bloc resection with immediate vessel reconstruction is necessary if thrombectomy... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:189-95. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.33
    Published on: 3 Sep 2017  | Viewed:1620  | Downloaded:154
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Efficacy and HCC development after DAA therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C: a single center retrospective cohort study

    Akitoshi Douhara, Hiroyuki Ogawa, Satoshi Nakatani, Takahiro Ozutsumi, Erika Shioyama, Masaaki Yoshikawa, Shigehiko Ueda
    Aim: The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is reduced after interferon based treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). A new therapy using direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) has been widely applied since 2014 for CHC. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy, safety and development of HCC after DAA treatment. Methods: The authors enrolled 33 consecutive patients who were treated with DAA for CHC at the hospital between January 2015 and March 2016. The laboratory data were collected at the start and 24 weeks after DAA therapy. Results: The authors... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:215-20. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.32
    Published on: 17 Oct 2017  | Viewed:1616  | Downloaded:130
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  • Review|Open Access

    Systemic therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma: a recap of the current status

    Petros Giovanis, Manuela De Bona, Fabio Farinati, Andrea Buda, Riccardo Berletti, Fable Zustovich, Simona D’Ippolito, Michele De Boni, Umberto Cillo, Davide Pastorelli
    After decades of frustrating nihilism due to lack of innovative therapeutic solutions, the onco-hepatological community is facing up to important novelties for the treatment of intermediate and advanced stages of liver cancer. Four new drugs have been investigated and resulted in positive data: lenvatinib resulted not inferior to the standard of care sorafenib in first line, regorafenib and cabozantinib demonstrated prolonging survival in patients progressed to sorafenib and nivolumab approved by FDA as option after first-line. Contemporary, the knowledge acquired after ten years’... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:10. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.21
    Published on: 27 Apr 2018  | Viewed:1499  | Downloaded:137
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Prediction of post-progression survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma treated with sorafenib by using time-dependent changes in clinical characteristics

    Yoshiyuki Wada, Yuko Takami, Hajime Matsushima, Masaki Tateishi, Tomoki Ryu, Munehiro Yoshitomi, Hideki Saitsu
    Aim: Sorafenib has been shown to improve time to tumor progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, post-progression survival (PPS) has not been well characterized in these patients. This study aimed to evaluate the predictors of PPS by using time-dependent and dynamic changes in radiologic progression patterns, liver function, and performance status (PS) in patients with advanced HCC receiving sorafenib treatment. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of 128 advanced HCC patients with Child-Pugh scores ≤ 7... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:8. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.39
    Published on: 6 Mar 2018  | Viewed:1496  | Downloaded:109
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  • Topic: Management of Huge and Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma|Open Access

    Outcomes of emergency and interval hepatectomy for ruptured resectable hepatocellular carcinoma: a single tertiary referral centre experience

    Andrew Kai Yip Fung, Charing Ching Ning Chong, Kit Fai Lee, John Wong, Yue Sun Cheung, Anthony Kwong Wai Fong, Paul Bo San Lai
    Aim: The short and long term outcomes of patients who underwent emergency and interval hepatectomy for ruptured and resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were analysed. Methods: The data of patients with ruptured HCC presenting between April 2004 and October 2015 were analysed. Emergency hepatectomy was defined as hepatectomy within 48 h of the clinico-radiological diagnosis of HCC rupture. Results: Thirty patients underwent hepatectomy for ruptured HCC. Nine (30%) patients underwent emergency hepatectomy. The median age was 56 and 54 years (P = 0.13) with a similar gender distribution.... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:196-204. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.23
    Published on: 8 Sep 2017  | Viewed:1494  | Downloaded:115
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  • Minireview|Open Access

    Primary hepatic lymphoma: is it a disease entity?

    Fei Xiong, Yong-Song Guan
    It is now widely accepted that lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic cells in the immune system and a type of blood cancer that develops when T or B lymphocytes of the white blood cells display uncontrolled proliferation and cellular immortality. Currently, a number of authors have published case reports or case series in which these lesions are defined as primary hepatic lymphoma. This minireview discusses several aspects of the entity of primary hepatic lymphoma, especially the dilemmas in diagnosis. Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:73-8. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.02
    Published on: 9 May 2017  | Viewed:1484  | Downloaded:129
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Comments on “The severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with gut dysbiosis and shift in the metabolic function of the gut microbiota”

    Anna Egresi, Krisztina Hagymási, Gabriella Lengyel
    Hepatoma Res 2016;2:328-30. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2016.31
    Published on: 13 Dec 2016  | Viewed:1474  | Downloaded:142
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  • Topic: Management of Huge and Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma|Open Access

    Robotic hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma: a clinical review

    Eric C.H. Lai, Daniel T.M. Chung, Oliver C.Y. Chan, Chung Ngai Tang
    The robotic surgical system was developed to overcome the disadvantages of conventional laparoscopic surgery. The use of robots in liver surgery was not well evaluated. This article aimed at reviewing robotic partial hepatectomy to conventional laparoscopic or open partial hepatectomy in terms of perioperative, oncologic, and healthcare costs for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE and PubMed databases for articles from January 2004 to June 2017 using the keywords "laparoscopic hepatectomy", "robotic surgery", "robotic hepatectomy", and... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:278-83. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.37
    Published on: 27 Nov 2017  | Viewed:1472  | Downloaded:88
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  • Review|Open Access

    Further understanding of mechanisms involved in liver cancer chemoresistance

    Oscar Briz, Maria J. Perez, Jose J. G. Marin
    An important limitation for the success of chemotherapy in the treatment of primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatoblastoma and cholangiocarcinoma) is the marked efficacy of mechanisms of chemoresistance (MOC). These have been previously classified into five groups depending on whether they result in: a reduced drug uptake or enhanced drug export (MOC-1); poor intracellular activation of prodrugs or higher inactivation of active drugs (MOC-2); changes in the molecular targets that impairs the action of the drug by increasing the activity of the metabolic route to be inhibited... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:22-6. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2016.22
    Published on: 19 Jan 2017  | Viewed:1456  | Downloaded:274
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Sorafenib from palliative to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma with major vascular invasion: experience of two cases

    Naganathan Selvakumar, Sandeep Vohra, Deep Sika Arora, Subash Gupta
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide and the incidence is higher in cirrhosis. Treatment options depend on tumor stage, status of liver function, and the general condition of the patient. Major vascular invasion is a contraindication for liver transplantation. Sorafenib has been found to be useful in association with transarterial chemoembolization as an effective chemotherapeutic agent to prolong survival in inoperable HCCs. Here we describe our experience where sorafenib was used as palliation but later turned out to be a neoadjuvant. Both cases had... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:18-21. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2016.14
    Published on: 12 Jan 2017  | Viewed:1451  | Downloaded:142
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Response rates of hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic colorectal cancer metastases to drug eluting bead regional liver therapy

    Glenn W. Stambo, Deborah Cragan
    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare how hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal metastases respond to LC Bead chemoembolization using doxorubicin and irinotecan. Methods: The authors report their experience with doxorubicin and irinotecan eluting beads to treat 13 patients with primary HCC and 25 patients with colorectal metastases over a 1-year period at a single community based oncology practice. Within the colorectal cancer group they compared irinotecan eluting beads to doxorubicin eluting beads. Results: Nine of the 11 (81.8%) doxorubicin treated HCC... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:141-8. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.12
    Published on: 12 Jul 2017  | Viewed:1400  | Downloaded:125
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Neoplastic macrovascular invasion represents an independent risk factor for dismal survival in sorafenib treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Michele Lecchini, Andrea Olivani, Elisabetta Biasini, Raffaele Dalla Valle, Carlo Ferrari, Gabriele Missale, Claudia Schianchi
    Aim: Sorafenib efficacy and safety in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been demonstrated in two randomized international clinical trials and in clinical practice studies. Because of poor survival advantage, to identify clinical and biological parameters remains an unmet clinical need. Methods: Eighty-four patients treated with sorafenib were evaluated for response to therapy and prognostic factors possibly associated with survival. Results: Median overall survival was 8.5 months. Median duration of therapy was 2.5 months with a median daily dose of 800 mg (IQR 600-800). Dose was... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:260-7. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.44
    Published on: 16 Nov 2017  | Viewed:1386  | Downloaded:91
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Attenuation of liver stiffness in sorafenib-treated patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    Chien-Fu Hung, Dong Liu, Tsung-Han Wu, Chao-Wei Lee, Kuang-Tse Pan, Ching-Ting Wang, Hsiu-Ying Chai, Ming-Chin Yu, Yi-Cheng Chen
    Aim: Sorafenib is a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor and the standard therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This retrospective study aimed to observe the anti-fibrotic effect of sorafenib in patients with advanced HCC. Methods: Seventeen patients with advanced HCC were recruited. Shear wave velocity (SWV) using acoustic radiation force impulse elastography and non-invasive serum markers for liver fibrosis, such as the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR), the AST to platelet ratio index, the fibrosis-4 index and the Lok index, were recorded... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:52-7. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2016.43
    Published on: 24 Mar 2017  | Viewed:1326  | Downloaded:149
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Neoadjuvant hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy for resectable hepatocellular carcinomas

    Rina Tsutsui, Hiroaki Nagamatsu, Osamu Itano, Akihiro Deguchi, Tsubasa Tsutsumi, Mamoru Hiraki, Naohisa Mizukami, Jun Akiba
    Aim: To evaluate the effect of neoadjuvant hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) on the survival of patients with resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Between January 2003 and January 2014, 80 patients underwent hepatic resection for HCC. Of these patients, we evaluated 49 patients who met the following inclusion criteria: (1) preserved liver function (Child-Pugh A); (2) resectable HCC (≤ 3 nodules, regardless of the size); and (3) HCC with high-grade malignant potential. Among them, 13 patients underwent neoadjuvant HAIC and curative hepatectomy (treatment group).... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:13. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.20
    Published on: 11 May 2018  | Viewed:1322  | Downloaded:60
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Comparison of outcomes between laparoscopic vs. open liver resection for intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma

    Avril David, YoungRok Choi, Ho-Seong Han, Yoo-Seok Yoon, Jai Young Cho
    Aim: The Barcelona Clinic Liver Score (BCLC) currently limits hepatic resection only for small, solitary tumors measuring 2-3 cm with no signs of portal hypertension (PHT) or macrovascular invasion. The aim of this study was to show the benefit of surgical resection, and to compare the peri-operative and long-term outcomes between laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) and open liver resection (OLR) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) classified as intermediate stage (B) under BCLC. Methods: From 2004 to 2013, 49 patients staged as intermediate (BCLC B) and who underwent hepatic resection was... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Huge and Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:2. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.51
    Published on: 18 Jan 2018  | Viewed:1320  | Downloaded:85
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  • Review|Open Access

    Interventional radiology for post-transplant anastomotic complications

    Toshiya Shibata
    The effectiveness of percutaneous interventional radiology for anastomotic stricture in hepatic vein, portal vein, and biliary tract after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is described. As a number of patients with LDLT are infants < 10-year-old in the study, the first treatment option was balloon dilatation, not primary stenting. However, stent placement was performed in patients with recurrent, repeated stenosis. Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:221-7. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.34
    Published on: 25 Oct 2017  | Viewed:1302  | Downloaded:67
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Lycopene treatment stalls the onset of experimentally induced hepatocellular carcinoma: a radioisotopic, physiological and biochemical analysis

    Nisha Bhatia, Baljinder Singh, Ashwani Koul
    Aim: The present study was aimed to determine the modulatory role of lycopene enriched tomato extract (LycT) during initiation of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Female Balb/c mice were divided into 4 groups: control, NDEA (200 mg NDEA/kg b.wt, cumulative dose), LycT (5 mg/kg b.wt, thrice a week) and LycT + NDEA. LycT administration was commenced 2 weeks prior to NDEA administration in LycT + NDEA group. Results: NDEA treatment caused histopathological alterations in hepatic tissue and was associated with enhanced serum levels of inflammatory... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:9. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.04
    Published on: 27 Mar 2018  | Viewed:1281  | Downloaded:48
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    First case report of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of peritoneal cavity in a living donor liver transplantation recipient

    Naganathan Selvakumar, Parul Saboti, Sumaid Kaul, Subash Gupta
    Post-transplantation malignancies are well known complications after liver transplantation. Certain malignancies are more common in pediatric recipients than adults. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are reactive neoplasms with miniscule malignant potential. IMTs are more common after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, there is 1 case reported in the literature after deceased donor liver transplantation. The authors describe a case of IMT after living donor liver transplantation. The patient was a 1-year-old girl who underwent living donor liver transplantation... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:86-9. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.01
    Published on: 17 May 2017  | Viewed:1186  | Downloaded:106
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Clinical outcomes of direct-acting antiviral therapy in patients with compensated hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis

    Estefania Berge, Ana Arencibia, Elena Otón, Luis Cejas, Silvia Acosta, Francisco Pérez
    Aim: The aim was to assess the clinical impact of direct-acting antiviral treatment in patients with compensated hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis after one year of follow-up. Methods: An observational retrospective study was conducted on 129 consecutive patients with compensated cirrhosis treated in 2015, analyzing the evolution of liver function and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and clinical decompensations. Results: The median follow-up time was 16 months. Most patients were males (73%), the mean age was 58.1 years and the most frequent genotype was 1b (52.2%). All... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:209-14. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.28
    Published on: 27 Sep 2017  | Viewed:1143  | Downloaded:113
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  • Review|Open Access

    T cell immunotherapy in hepatitis B virus related hepatocellular carcinoma

    Morteza Hafezi, Antonio Bertoletti, Anthony T. Tan
    Chronic hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While multiple treatment modalities are available, liver transplantation remains the sole curative treatment for advanced stages of HCC, and hence new treatment approaches are required to fulfill this unmet need of curative HCC therapy. Our first-in-man proof-of-concept adoptive T-cell immunotherapy against HBV related hepatocellular carcinoma metastases has shown promising results. Here, we review the development of T-cell immunotherapy targeting HBV antigens for the treatment of HBV-HCC... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:16. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.55
    Published on: 30 May 2018  | Viewed:1141  | Downloaded:73
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Total regression of hepatocellular carcinoma bone metastases, after liver transplantation, with sorafenib-everolimus

    Dimitrios Giakoustidis, Athanasios Apostolos Gargavanis, Nikolaos Salveridis, Evangelos Cholongitas, Emmanouil Sinakos, Konstantinos Papapolychroniadis, Vasileios Papanikolaou
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the 5th commonest malignancy worldwide. Liver transplantation consist a radical and most efficient treatment for HCC. Tumor recurrence or metastases after liver transplantation is not uncommon. Hereby is presented a case of a patient transplanted for alcoholic liver disease and HCC and presented with bone metastases a few months later. Treatment with sorafenib and everolimus showed full regression of the metastases. In conclusion, the point of this report is to advertise a single case of total regression of bone lesions due to HCC recurrence, with... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:205-8. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.29
    Published on: 20 Sep 2017  | Viewed:1139  | Downloaded:91
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  • Review|Open Access

    Function of myeloid cell leukaemia-1 and its regulative relations with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Man Zhu, Yan-Min Zhang
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a challenging disease with a high recurrence rate after surgery and there is an imminent need to identify new treatments. Currently, adjuvant therapy like chemotherapeutics arises to counteract the malignant trait escaping from apoptosis of tumors induced by overexpressed anti-apoptotic factors in HCC. Myeloid cell leukaemia-1 (Mcl-1) as an anti-apoptotic member of Bcl-2 is highly expressed in diverse human cancers, which contributes to cancer cell survival and the resistance to diverse chemotherapeutic agents. It is confirmed that Mcl-1 protein... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:129-40. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.14
    Published on: 6 Jul 2017  | Viewed:1106  | Downloaded:133
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  • Review|Open Access

    Oxidative stress and hepatocarcinogenesis

    Ying Fu, Fung-Lung Chung
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. There are two major challenges for HCC, the first being that early detection is generally not applicable, and secondly, it is usually fatal within several months after diagnosis. HCC is an inflammation-induced cancer. It is known that chronic inflammation leads to oxidative/nitrosative stress and lipid peroxidation, generating excess oxidative stress, together with aldehydes which can react with DNA bases to form promutagenic DNA adducts. In this review, the evidence between oxidative stress and... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:39. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.29
    Published on: 1 Aug 2018  | Viewed:1091  | Downloaded:163
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization in recurrent unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma after orthotopic liver transplantation

    Hasmukh J. Prajapati, Pavan Kavali, Hyun S. Kim
    Aim: To investigate the survivals and efficacy of the doxorubicin drug eluting beads transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in patients with recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) status post orthotopic liver transplantation. Methods: Consecutive patients with HCC who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation from 2005 to 2012 were reviewed. Patients who developed recurrent HCC after orthotopic liver transplantation and received doxorubicin drug eluting beads TACE therapy were identified and included in the study. Survivals were calculated from the time of 1st doxorubicin drug... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:182-8. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.25
    Published on: 17 Aug 2017  | Viewed:1047  | Downloaded:104
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    A potential clinical based score in hepatitis C virus cirrhotic patients to exclude small hepatocellular carcinoma

    Denise Cerqueira Paranaguá-Vezozzo, Celso Eduardo Lourenço Matielo, Daniel Ferraz de Campos Mazo, Lucas Souto Nacif, Mario Guimaraes Pessoa, Gleicy Luz Reinoso Pereira, Roque Gabriel Rezende de Lima, Patricia Momoyo Yoshimura Zitelli, Suzane Kioko Ono, Flair José Carrilho
    Aim: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) cirrhosis is an important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to identify factors of HCC presence among HCV cirrhotic patients with and without small diameter HCC (≤ 3 cm). Methods: A case control transversal study between 1998 and 2003 including 93 patients: 31 with small diameter HCC and 62 without HCC. Groups were matched by age and gender. Multiple logistic regression analysis using Akaike Information Criteria to estimate the probability of HCC was performed. A model score was generated and bootstrap analysis was performed for internal... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:11. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.17
    Published on: 27 Apr 2018  | Viewed:979  | Downloaded:78
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  • Review|Open Access

    Hypofractionated ablative radiation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: practical considerations and review of the literature

    Marsha Reyngold, Eugene J. Koay, Christopher H. Crane
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy. The prognosis for patients who present with inoperable primary liver tumors is poor with median survival times of 12 months or less. Tumor-related liver failure is a common cause of mortality, underscoring the importance of local control. Recent advancements in external beam radiation therapy delivery techniques have enabled dose escalation that in turn has significantly improved local control and has allowed radiation therapy to emerge as an effective modality in this setting. In this review, we outline the... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:49. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.84
    Published on: 20 Aug 2018  | Viewed:972  | Downloaded:80
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  • Topic: Novel Approaches for HCC|Open Access

    The impact of nucleos(t)ide analog therapy in hepatitis B on the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma: an update including recent literature findings

    Walid S. Ayoub, Francis Dailey, Paul Martin, Patricia D. Jones
    Worldwide, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. In men, it is the fifth most common cancer and seventh most common in women; HCC is the second highest cause of cancer-related death worldwide. It is less prevalent in the USA and Northern Europe and more prevalent in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia. Over 700,000 cases are diagnosed each year - half of which occur in China - and result in roughly the same number of deaths per year. HCC significantly impairs quality of life and is associated with great costs to society. It is estimated that half of... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:302-8. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2016.44
    Published on: 20 Dec 2017  | Viewed:944  | Downloaded:112
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  • Review|Open Access

    New strategy to distinguish clonal origin of RHCC/MHCC between intrahepatic metastasis and multicentric occurrence

    Han Wang, Wen-Ming Cong
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a kind of malignancy with high potential of metastasis and multicentric occurrence. The treatment of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (RHCC) and multinodular hepatocellular carcinoma (MHCC) is always a nodus because of the diverse clonal origin of RHCC/MHCC. Theoretically, the RHCC/MHCC can originate from intrahepatic metastasis (IM type) or multicentric occurrence (MO type). Our previous study proposed that there are at least 6 subtypes of clonal origin patterns in RHCC. RHCC and MHCC with different clonal origins have variant biological behaviors,... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:14. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.16
    Published on: 28 May 2018  | Viewed:943  | Downloaded:72
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  • Review|Open Access

    Molecular mechanism of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Seung Kew Yoon
    Development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is very complex and occurs through a multistep biological process of malignant transformation of normal hepatocytes in which various factors, including genetic and epigenetic alterations, regulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and immunity are involved. To date, numerous studies have described the molecular pathogenesis of HCC, but the precise molecular mechanisms of HCC development remain unclear. Emerging single-cell transcriptome analysis technology is a powerful tool for defining sub-populations within heterogeneous bulk tumor tissue... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:42. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.23
    Published on: 8 Aug 2018  | Viewed:934  | Downloaded:169
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  • Topic: Management of Huge and Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma|Open Access

    The role of oral antiviral therapy in hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    James Fung, Kenneth S.H. Chok
    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in places where chronic hepatitis B infection is endemic. Oral nucleos(t)ide analog (NA) therapy can reduce the risk of HCC, but cannot completely prevent its development. For HBV-related HCCs, viral inhibition by NAs can preserve or improve liver function, thereby increasing the chance of therapeutic intervention. After surgical resection, NAs can prevent reactivation of HBV, and also reduce the chance of de novo development of HCC in the remnant liver. For those who undergo liver transplantation, NAs are... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2017;3:284-93. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2017.38
    Published on: 27 Nov 2017  | Viewed:925  | Downloaded:91
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  • Review|Open Access

    Performance of different biomarkers for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Ángela Rojas, Yolanda Sánchez-Torrijos, Antonio Gil-Gómez, Chang-Hai Liu, Clara Rodríguez-Rivas, María Teresa Ferrer, Manuel Romero-Gómez
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and the second cause of cancer related death due to latent liver disease, late diagnosis and non-available therapeutic treatment. Liver biopsy is still the gold standard in order to know the molecular biology of the tumor, its behaviour and invasive characteristics. Conventional diagnosis methods for HCC detection include imaging and serological tests with low sensitivity and specificity. In this review, we focus on the potential utility of certain serum biomarkers and a new approach, “liquid biopsy”, in the management... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:31. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.60
    Published on: 6 Jul 2018  | Viewed:888  | Downloaded:111
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  • Review|Open Access

    HCV clearance by direct antiviral therapy and occurrence/recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma: still an issue?

    Francesco Paolo Russo, Martina Tessari, Angela Imondi, Erica Nicola Lynch, Fabio Farinati
    New regimens with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) agents have changed both efficacy and safety of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-treatment, as almost all patients can be treated and cured at any stage of liver disease. The rates of sustained virological response to currently available combinations exceed 95% in real-life practice. However, conflicting results have been produced on the occurrence/recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with HCV-associated cirrhosis treated with DAAs. In this review we analyse the data available in the literature in order to elucidate the impact of... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Liver Cancer
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:25. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.52
    Published on: 27 Jun 2018  | Viewed:801  | Downloaded:99
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  • Review|Open Access

    Time for hepatocellular carcinoma immunotherapy: insights for successful clinical applications in this challenging tumor

    Gabriele Missale, Elisabetta Cariani
    The multiplicity and phenotype of intratumoral immune infiltrate have been shown to influence the clinical outcome of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), thus providing a strong rationale to therapeutic interventions aimed at restoring the dysfunctional immune response against the tumor. Improving the knowledge of the complex interactions between transformed hepatocytes, nonparenchymal resident cells, and infiltrating immune cells (characterizing the HCC microenvironment) will be instrumental to increase the success rate of existing immunotherapeutic strategies and to identify new potential... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Liver Cancer
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:22. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.72
    Published on: 25 Jun 2018  | Viewed:760  | Downloaded:72
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  • Review|Open Access

    Hepatic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Shun Yamaguchi, Taichiro Kosaka, Susumu Eguchi
    Hepatic resection has become the standard treatment of primary liver cancer. Indications for hepatic resection in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) vary greatly between Japan and other countries because the clinical practice guidelines for HCC defined by the Japan Society of Hepatology differ from the EASL-EORTC clinical practice guidelines. Hepatic resection is not recommended as a treatment for the patients at Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage B. Otherwise, there are many surgeons/clinicians who believe that not all HCC patients at BCLC stage B should be excluded from... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:50. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.68
    Published on: 22 Aug 2018  | Viewed:749  | Downloaded:55
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  • Review|Open Access

    Epidemiology and viral risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in the Eastern Mediterranean countries

    Suna Yapali, Nurdan Tozun
    Given the high prevalence of viral hepatitis in the Eastern Mediterranean countries, hepatitis B and C infections are the major causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the region. Most cases are associated with cirrhosis related to hepatitis B or C infection. Environmental, host genetic and viral factors can affect the risk of HCC in patients with hepatitis B and C infection. Understanding the epidemiology and viral risk factors in the region provides the implementation of strategies for prevention and treatment of viral hepatitis. Herein, we reviewed the epidemiology, burden of disease... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue What More We can do on Hepatitis C?
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:24. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.57
    Published on: 27 Jun 2018  | Viewed:723  | Downloaded:58
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  • Review|Open Access

    Pathway analysis provides insight into the genetic susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma and insight into immuno-therapy treatment response

    Yih-Kuang Lu, Jacob Morris Brill, Ardesher Aghili, Kenneth Howard Buetow
    Clear evidence exists for genetic susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple candidate susceptibility loci. These loci suggest that genetic variation in the immune system may underpin HCC susceptibility. Genes for the antigen processing and presentation pathway have been observed to be significantly enriched across studies and the pathway is identified directly through genome-wide studies of variation using pathway methods. Detailed analysis of the pathway indicates both variation in the antigen presenting loci and in the... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:21. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.44
    Published on: 22 Jun 2018  | Viewed:696  | Downloaded:40
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  • Review|Open Access

    Mitoepigenetics and hepatocellular carcinoma

    María Guadalupe Lozano-Rosas, Enrique Chávez, Alejandro Rusbel Aparicio-Cadena, Gabriela Velasco-Loyden, Victoria Chagoya de Sánchez
    Mitochondria are the center of energy production in eukaryotic cells and are crucial for several cellular processes. Dysfunctional mitochondria have been associated with cancer progression. Mitochondria contain their own circular DNA (mtDNA), which codes for 13 proteins, 2rRNA, 22tRNA and non-coding RNAs. Recent evidence showed the presence of 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroximethylcytosine in mtDNA suggesting that the level of gene expression could be modulated like a nuclear DNA by direct epigenetic modifications. Mitoepigenetics is a bidirectional phenomenon in the epigenetic regulation of... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:19. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.48
    Published on: 19 Jun 2018  | Viewed:692  | Downloaded:56
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Gender differences in hepatocellular cancer: disparities in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis and liver transplantation

    Eric M. Wu, Linda L. Wong, Brenda Y. Hernandez, Jun-Fang Ji, Wei Jia, Sandi A. Kwee, Sumodh Kalathil
    Aim: Worldwide, hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer death and occurs 3 times more commonly in males than females. Current surveillance practices do not fully address gender differences in HCC. Methods: Clinical characteristics and survival were compared between males and females using a prospectively collected database of HCC patients. Results: In a cohort of 1206 patients, 307 (25%) were female who presented with older age, more non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH), family history of HCC, and hypertension. Males (75%) were more likely... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:66. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.87
    Published on: 18 Oct 2018  | Viewed:670  | Downloaded:14
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  • Review|Open Access

    Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma: summary of current guidelines up to 2018

    Nevin Yilmaz, Ugur Eser Yilmaz, Kaya Suer, Vedat Goral, Nedim Cakir
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer related to worldwide death with a great geographical variation. To be eligible for curative therapy at the time of diagnosis is important. However, the majority of cases are diagnosed at late stages. This can be achieved with applicable screening modalities. Until now, many organizations around the world have developed guidelines according to their own evidence-based data for screening of HCC. The purpose of this article is to review the screening modalities of HCC to assist gastroenterologists and providers involved in... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue What More We can do on Hepatitis C?
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:46. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.49
    Published on: 16 Aug 2018  | Viewed:643  | Downloaded:45
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Novel diagnosis and therapy for hepatoma targeting HBV-related carcinogenesis through alternative splicing of FIR (PUF60)/FIRΔexon2

    Kazuyuki Matsushita, Tyuji Hoshino
    Aim: Disturbed alternative splicing of far upstream element-binding protein-interacting repressor (FIR) was found to be unable to repress c-Myc transcription and so it might be important for suppressing tumor development. FIR is a splicing variant of poly (U)-binding-splicing factor (PUF60), and forms complex with other splicing factors. FIR/PUF60 is a splicing factor of U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein auxiliary factor family, Thus FIR/PUF60 is a multifunctional protein. The expression of exon2-lacking splicing variant of FIR, FIRΔexon2, is elevated in many cancer tissues and promotes... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:61. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.81
    Published on: 29 Sep 2018  | Viewed:639  | Downloaded:30
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  • Review|Open Access

    Exosome-based liquid biopsy in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Aparna Jayachandran, Sasidhar Venkata Manda, Ritu Shrestha, Kim R. Bridle, Prashanth Prithviraj, Darrell H. G. Crawford
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) commonly presents at an advanced stage due to the lack of efficient early screening tools. Early, non-invasive biomarkers useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of HCC would be of significant benefit for HCC management. Development of exosome-based liquid biopsy as a non-invasive method for the management of HCC has gained much traction. Exosomes are small membranous vesicles secreted by most cell types including HCC cells. Exosomes serve as couriers for the intercellular transfer of important biomolecules, including, protein, nucleic acids and lipids to nearby... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:44. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.59
    Published on: 13 Aug 2018  | Viewed:626  | Downloaded:77
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Beta2-glycoprotein I cooperate with hepatitis B surface antigen promotes hepatocellular carcinogenesis via the nuclear factor kappa B signal pathway were enhanced by the lipopolysaccharide

    Xue-Li Ding, Xue Jing, Nai-Jun Han, Zi-Bin Tian, Pu-Jun Gao, Lin Yang, Ya-Nan Yu
    Aim: We aimed to elucidate whether beta2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) cooperation with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) promoted hepatocellular carcinogenesis enhanced by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and alpha fetal protein (AFP) in liver cancer cells. Methods: Liver cancer cells (SMMC-7721) were transiently transfected with β2GPI and/or HBsAg and were subjected to LPS treatment. TNF-α, IL-1β, and AFP expression were measured in all groups by ELISA. NF-κB activation was... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:12. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.07
    Published on: 28 Apr 2018  | Viewed:618  | Downloaded:45
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Hepatocellular carcinoma in patients without cirrhosis: relevance and clinical characteristics

    Kellyane Santana Dias Carvalho, Luciano E. Fonseca, Helma P. Cotrim
    Aim: The present study evaluated the frequency of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients without cirrhosis. Methods: HCC patients were recruited from two reference centers for liver disease in Northeast Brazil from 2010 to 2016. The diagnosis of HCC and cirrhosis was based on international criteria.Results: A total of 169 patients were included, and 16% (27) of the patients did not have hepatocellular carcinoma in non-cirrhosis (HCC-NC). The mean age of HCC-NC was 64.4 ± 11.3 years, and 74.1% of the patients were male. The main risk factors were hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 29.6% (8),... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:15. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.13
    Published on: 29 May 2018  | Viewed:613  | Downloaded:53
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  • Review|Open Access

    Cancer immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Joo-Ho Lee, Soo-Yeon Oh, Jin Yong Kim, Naoshi Nishida
    Most hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) arise on a background of chronically inflamed liver, and thus are considered typical immunogenic cancers. Although there have been advances in treatment options for HCC, many patients still struggle with a limited chance of survival requiring further innovative approach. Especially for the advanced HCC, many other molecular targeted therapies had been evaluated without success. Based on the immunological mechanisms thought to be acting during HCC development, the effects of diverse immunomodulatory regimens such as therapeutic vaccination, immune... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:51. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.78
    Published on: 10 Sep 2018  | Viewed:599  | Downloaded:53
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  • Review|Open Access

    Ablative techniques in hepatocellular carcinoma treatment

    Ehsun Naeem, Shahab Abid
    Hepatocellular carcinoma has been known to arise commonly in the setting of chronic liver disease. Due to its association with cirrhosis, patients with hepatocellular carcinoma often present with markedly diminished hepatic functional reserve, making them poor surgical candidates. For such patients, image-guided percutaneous ablative modalities have provided a viable alternate curative therapy. Although treatment allocation is a decision based on a number of factors, patients eligible for percutaneous ablation generally include those with early stage disease, hepatocellular carcinoma with... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue What More We can do on Hepatitis C?
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:18. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.22
    Published on: 13 Jun 2018  | Viewed:565  | Downloaded:52
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  • Review|Open Access

    Alpha-fetoprotein as a predictor of hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence following liver transplantation

    Evangelia M. Fatourou, Abid R. Suddle, Michael A. Heneghan
    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) has been increasingly recognised as a valuable marker in predicting HCC recurrence post-liver transplantation. Moreover, its secretion has been associated with poor histological tumour characteristics as it reflects an aggressive tumour biological behaviour. This review aims to summarise the emerging evidence on the use of AFP either as an independent marker, or as a variable incorporated into prognostic models. For this purpose, an electronic PubMed literature search was performed. Due to the heterogeneity of the reported studies, drawing clear conclusions about the... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:63. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.62
    Published on: 10 Oct 2018  | Viewed:560  | Downloaded:32
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  • Opinion|Open Access

    Elimination of hepatitis from Pakistan by 2030: is it possible?

    Yasir Waheed, Masood Siddiq
    Globally 71 million people are living with hepatitis C virus (HCV) out which 7.1 million (10%) are present in Pakistan. Genotype 3 is the most common HCV type in the country. World Health Organization is working with health authorities in different countries for effective control of HCV, to reduce its incidence by 90% and to reduce hepatitis related mortality by 65% by the year 2030. There are several challenges that hinder elimination of HCV from Pakistan including the lack of patient awareness about the causes and transmission of disease, lack of affordability for investigations and drug... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue What More We can do on Hepatitis C?
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:45. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.58
    Published on: 14 Aug 2018  | Viewed:547  | Downloaded:26
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen in predicting recurrence of hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation

    James Fung, Danny Ka-Ho Wong, Yasuhito Tanaka, Regina Lo, Tiffany Wong, Kenneth Siu-Ho Chok, Albert Chi-Yan Chan, Tan-To Cheung, Wing-Chiu Dai, Kelvin Ng, Kevin Ng, Man Kwan, Irene Ng, Wai-Kay Seto, Ching-Lung Lai, Man-Fung Yuen, Chung-Mau Lo
    Aim: Recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after liver transplantation (LT) for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) can be associated with reappearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The current study determined the significance of HBsAg qualitatively and quantitatively using a highly sensitive assay in recurrent HCC after transplantation. Methods: Consecutive patients with HBV-related HCC with LT were included. Oral nucleos(t)ide analogues without hepatitis B immune globulin were used as hepatitis B virus (HBV) prophylaxis. Quantitative HBsAg levels were performed at time of... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:62. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.92
    Published on: 29 Sep 2018  | Viewed:541  | Downloaded:26
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    [18F]FDG PET imaging evaluation on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma model treated with sorafenib

    Fernando Gomes de Barros Costa, José Tadeu Stefano, Daniele de Paula Faria, Caio de Souza Levy, Maria Cristina Chammas, Camila de Godoi Carneiro, Isabel Veloso Alves Pereira, Bruno Cogliati, Flair José Carrilho, Claudia P. Oliveira
    Aim: Evaluate the effect of sorafenib in a rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) related to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by quantifying the correlation between changes in glucose metabolism on PET imaging and degree of tumor differentiation. Methods: NAFLD related HCC was induced by the combination of high fat and choline deficient diet with diethylnitrosamine (100 mg/L) for 16 weeks. Then carcinogenic stimuli were suspended, liver nodules were identified by abdominal ultrasound and two groups were randomized: control (n = 10) and sorafenib (n = 20). Rats received daily... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:35. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.06
    Published on: 12 Jul 2018  | Viewed:541  | Downloaded:29
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  • Review|Open Access

    Pro-oncogenic role of SerpinB3 in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Andrea Martini, Patrizia Pontisso
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most relevant sanitary problems for its prevalence and poor prognosis. This tumor is characterized by highly heterogeneous features, both at clinical and molecular level. SerpinB3 (squamous cell carcinoma antigen-1 or SCCA1) is a serine-protease inhibitor that protects cells from oxidative stress conditions, but in chronic liver damage it may lead to HCC through different strategies, including inhibition of apoptosis, induction of epithelial to mesenchymal transition, cell proliferation and invasiveness. Mechanisms of tumor growth promotion... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Liver Cancer
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:28. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.50
    Published on: 29 Jun 2018  | Viewed:523  | Downloaded:37
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  • Review|Open Access

    Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma - non-cancer factors and implications for improving outcome beyond standard tumor criteria

    Arno Kornberg, Martina Schernhammer
    Liver transplantation (LT) is recognized as best treatment option in patients with early hepatocellular cancer (HCC) in underlying liver cirrhosis. Apart from tumor size and number implemented in the Milan criteria, which are current worldwide standards for patient selection, several biological tumor factors have been identified to affect cancer-specific outcome. In particular, grading and vascular tumor invasions were shown to correlate with aggressive biological tumor behavior and poor survival following LT. Identifying tumors with favorable biology is one important approach for expanding... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:60. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.86
    Published on: 29 Sep 2018  | Viewed:519  | Downloaded:19
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  • Review|Open Access

    Immunotherapy: a new era for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Ya-Jing He, Ya-Bing Guo, Wei Zhu, Yu-Kai He, Jin-Lin Hou
    Cancer is a major disease threatening human health. The overall prognosis for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients is poor, with a dismal 5-year survival rate of approximately 5%-30%. The dysfunction of immune system plays a pivotal role in the development of cancer, which has attracted attention of several researchers. Recent advances in immunotherapy have led to various inspired achievements and refreshed our concepts about cancer treatments. In this article, several types of immune-based therapies for treating HCC are reviewed. Their underlying mechanisms, preclinical and clinical... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:40. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.45
    Published on: 6 Aug 2018  | Viewed:510  | Downloaded:32
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  • Review|Open Access

    Pre-S2 and HBV associated hepatocellular carcinoma

    Ying Zheng, Yan-Yan Qian, Hong Fan
    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a primary cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Under selection pressures of host immunity and/or immunoprophylaxis and antiviral therapies, HBV evolves by accumulating mutations in its genome. Several studies highlighted the considerable importance of HBV surface (HBs) protein mutants (pre-S/S variants) in tumorigenesis. Among those mutants, pre-S2 mutants have been recognized as “precursor lesions of HCC” and as risk factors for post-operative recurrence of HCC. Pre-S2 mutants play important roles in tumor progression and induce various mechanisms... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:17. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.08
    Published on: 31 May 2018  | Viewed:510  | Downloaded:53
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  • Review|Open Access

    New and old biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Georgios Zacharakis, Ahmad Aleid, Khaled K Aldossari
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a significant cause of mortality in patients with chronic liver disease around the world. Development of biomarkers for early HCC detection is a primary public health goal to decrease mortality. The ideal biomarkers should be highly sensitive and specific for surveillance of high-risk populations and early detection of HCC and also be able to predict therapeutic outcome and provide a prognosis on survival. Currently, the new biomarkers do not perform better than the conventional ones such as alpha-fetoprotein in such a way that they could be widely adopted... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:65. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.76
    Published on: 17 Oct 2018  | Viewed:507  | Downloaded:56
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  • Review|Open Access

    Laparoscopic liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Massimo Giacca, Daniel Cherqui
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the most common indication of laparoscopic liver resection (LLR). It must be acknowledged that most series concern minor hepatectomies for peripheral lesions located in favorable segments, and such procedures are now performed in the majority of HPB centers. However, there are growing reports concerning major hepatectomies (i.e., 3 segments or more) and complex resections such as anatomical resections in difficult segments (i.e., postero-superior). Retrospective comparative studies, including some with propensity score matching, and meta-analyses... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:47. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.79
    Published on: 17 Aug 2018  | Viewed:497  | Downloaded:35
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  • Review|Open Access

    Role of the contrast-enhanced ultrasoud in the diagnosis of HCC in cirrhotic liver

    Francesco Loria, Antonello Parlati, Giuseppe Loria, Luciano Frosina, Giuseppe Crea, Salvatore Basile, Caterina Alessio, Giuseppe Di Leo, Adele De Caridi, Vittorio Maschio, Nicola Zizzi, Orazio Trapuzzano, Salvatore Giuseppe Galea
    The development of second generation ultrasound (US) contrast-medium and specific imaging techniques with dedicated softwares, allows to observe the liver perfusion in real time, becoming an useful and less invasive method to describe precisely the vascularization of hepatic lesions. This significantly increased the ability of US to detect and characterize focal liver lesions. The aim of this review article is to evaluate the role of contrast enhancement US in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic liver, with reference to the guidelines of American Association for the Study... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Liver Cancer
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:59. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.75
    Published on: 28 Sep 2018  | Viewed:493  | Downloaded:29
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Heat shock reduces HCV replication via regulation of ribosomal L22 in Alu-RNA molecule dependent manner

    Hamada Farghaly, Adel A. Guirgis, Hany Khalil
    ... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue What More We can do on Hepatitis C?
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:41. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.30
    Published on: 7 Aug 2018  | Viewed:469  | Downloaded:32
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  • Review|Open Access

    Hepatitis C related hepatocellular carcinoma in the era of direct-acting antivirals

    Akshata Moghe, Obaid S. Shaikh
    Globally, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer related death. Hepatitis C virus infected patients with cirrhosis or bridging fibrosis are particularly at risk. The risk is reduced among patients who achieve viral clearance with interferon-based regimens. Direct-acting antivirals (DAA) have revolutionized the management of HCV as the treatment is well tolerated, convenient to administer and is highly effective. Earlier studies showed conflicting results in the effect of DAA induced sustained virologic response (SVR) on the subsequent development or recurrence... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue What More We can do on Hepatitis C?
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:36. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.54
    Published on: 18 Jul 2018  | Viewed:450  | Downloaded:34
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  • Review|Open Access

    Aberrant pre-mRNA splicing regulation in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Supriya Sen
    Alternative splicing is a highly regulated process that plays a critical role in diversification of the transcriptome and proteome in the cell. Several diseases, including different types of cancers, have been associated with aberrant regulation of alternative splicing. Thus, correcting alternative splicing is an attractive strategy to restore normal cell physiology in patients with cancer including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This review summarizes the role of alternative splicing events related to HCC and potential therapeutic applications for it. Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:37. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.39
    Published on: 18 Jul 2018  | Viewed:447  | Downloaded:18
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  • Review|Open Access

    Hypoxic microenvironment and hepatocellular carcinoma treatment

    Ci-Ai Lin, Lin-Lin Chang, Hong Zhu, Qiao-Jun He, Bo Yang
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most rapidly growing and prevalent cancers in the whole world. The characterized hypoxia region inside the HCC tumors has been recently found as the key driver of HCC malignance and treatment failure, leading to a variety of hypoxia-related biological consequences including angiogenesis, metastasis, metabolism deregulation and drug resistance, which ultimately resulted in treatment failure of HCC. This review will summarize the signaling pathways involved in hypoxia-mediated malignance of HCC and discuss current advances of hypoxia-targeted... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:26. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.27
    Published on: 29 Jun 2018  | Viewed:431  | Downloaded:32
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  • Review|Open Access

    HCV elimination: breaking down the barriers to prison based care

    Timothy Papaluca, Alexander Thompson
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a major public health threat worldwide, responsible for 500,000 deaths annually; hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains one of the major causes of HCV-related mortality. The global prevalence of HCV is approximately 1.0%, and in developed countries, injecting drug use continues to be the primary risk factor in incident cases. Targeted treatment of people who inject drugs (PWID) is important for achieving the WHO goals of eliminating viral hepatitis, which will have a significant impact on reducing HCC rates. Due to the close relationship between injecting... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue What More We can do on Hepatitis C?
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:64. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.53
    Published on: 17 Oct 2018  | Viewed:422  | Downloaded:13
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  • Review|Open Access

    Staging of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Sedat Karademir
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. In contrast to other cancers, survival of patients with HCC is determined by the extent of the tumor in addition to underlying liver disease and its functional reserve. From risk factors to management, HCC reveals a considerable geographic and institutional variation throughout the world. Although many staging and/or scoring systems have been proposed, each prognostic system has several benefits and limitations on its own. Therefore, there is currently no globally accepted system for HCC due to the... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:58. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.40
    Published on: 26 Sep 2018  | Viewed:421  | Downloaded:21
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  • Review|Open Access

    Oncogenic Wnt3a: a promising specific biomarker in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Min Yao, Miao Fang, Wen-Jie Zheng, Deng-Fu Yao
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still one of the most common and rapidly fatal malignancies worldwide with a multi-factorial, multi-step, complex process, and poor prognosis. Early discovery and effective therapy of HCC are of utmost importance. Recent studies demonstrated that Wnt/β-catenin pathway play important roles in occurrence and development of HCC including hepatocytes malignant transformation, metastasis, chemoresistance and liver cancer stem cells. Oncogenic wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 3a (Wnt3a) signaling is a promising biomarker in diagnosis and... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:30. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.32
    Published on: 5 Jul 2018  | Viewed:414  | Downloaded:29
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  • Review|Open Access

    Minimally invasive therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma: narrowing the gaps

    Kevin M. Sullivan, Raymond S. Yeung
    With increasing awareness of the HCC epidemic around the globe, early diagnosis of tumors provides a greater opportunity to benefit patients from liver-directed treatments including surgical resection, ablation, catheter-based therapies and external beam radiation. Development of new approaches and refinement of existing techniques have improved our capabilities to provide efficacious and safe means of local disease control. The choice of treatment for individual patients hinges heavily on factors related to the tumor, underlying hepatic function, and existing co-morbidities. Recent... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:68. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.95
    Published on: 25 Oct 2018  | Viewed:400  | Downloaded:17
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  • Review|Open Access

    Mechanisms and clinical behavior of hepatocellular carcinoma in HBV and HCV infection and alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Riccardo Nevola, Luca Rinaldi, Mauro Giordano, Aldo Marrone, Luigi Elio Adinolfi
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the main tumor of the liver and is the sixth most frequently diagnosed tumor in the world. It is the evolution of chronic hepatic injury secondary to different etiologies. Chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection, chronic alcoholic hepatitis, as well as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are the most common causes behind the development of HCC. The introduction of effective prophylaxis and treatment against hepatitis B, the recent use of highly effective hepatitis C treatments, as well as lifestyle changes observed in recent decades in the... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:55. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.38
    Published on: 20 Sep 2018  | Viewed:385  | Downloaded:33
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  • Review|Open Access

    The multifaceted oncogene SND1 in cancer: focus on hepatocellular carcinoma

    Saranya Chidambaranathan-Reghupaty, Rachel Mendoza, Paul B. Fisher, Devanand Sarkar
    Staphylococcal nuclease and tudor domain containing 1 (SND1) is a protein that regulates a complex array of functions. It controls gene expression through transcriptional activation, mRNA degradation, mRNA stabilization, ubiquitination and alternative splicing. More than two decades of research has accumulated evidence of the role of SND1 as an oncogene in various cancers. It is a promoter of cancer hallmarks like proliferation, invasion, migration, angiogenesis and metastasis. In addition to these functions, it has a role in lipid metabolism, inflammation and stress response. The... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:32. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.34
    Published on: 10 Jul 2018  | Viewed:381  | Downloaded:21
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  • Review|Open Access

    The fibroblast growth factor receptor pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Joycelyn Jie Xin Lee, Su Pin Choo
    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the third most common cause of cancer-related death globally and portends a poor prognosis. The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) pathway is increasingly acknowledged to play a role in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is postulated to be upregulated as a mechanism of resistance to anti-VEGF treatment. We attempt to review the importance of the FGFR pathway in HCC oncogenesis, as well as the current clinical evidence on the efficacy and safety of FGFR pathway inhibitors in HCC. Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:52. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.42
    Published on: 13 Sep 2018  | Viewed:363  | Downloaded:34
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  • Review|Open Access

    Factors predicting hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis C infection

    Zaigham Abbas, Minaam Abbas
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has emerged as a leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In most cases, the virus causes HCC in the presence of chronic hepatic inflammation, advanced fibrosis, and cirrhosis. A combination of viral, environmental, and genetic factors are likely to determine the host immune response to the infection as well as the progression to HCC. Clinical and epidemiologic studies have identified many of the risk factors associated with HCC development in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Male sex and older age are considered as independent risk factors for HCC, while... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue What More We can do on Hepatitis C?
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:43. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.26
    Published on: 8 Aug 2018  | Viewed:361  | Downloaded:24
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  • Review|Open Access

    Molecular targeting of antiviral drugs used against hepatitis C virus infection

    Mohammad Irshad, Priyanka Gupta, Khushboo Irshad
    Present study reports an update on the molecular interaction of antiviral drugs with viral and host cell components during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In addition to the traditional therapeutic drug regimen, termed as standard of care, some recent drugs have been added in the existing regimen used for HCV infection. These drugs were categorized as direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) agents and “other agents”, with their efficacious impact in the control of HCV infection. They target both viral proteases and host cell receptor proteins/enzymes involved in HCV entry into the cell,... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue What More We can do on Hepatitis C?
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:23. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.25
    Published on: 26 Jun 2018  | Viewed:360  | Downloaded:25
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  • Review|Open Access

    Somatostatin in hepatocellular carcinoma: experimental and therapeutic implications

    Elias Kouroumalis, Demetrius Samonakis, George Notas
    The neuropeptide somatostatin has been shown to control the secretion of several hormones and growth factors, but also to inhibit the proliferation of several tumor cells. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of death all over the world due to very limited treatment modalities. Early reports showed that somatostatin may influence HCC growth, making somatostatin a potential therapeutic candidate. The introduction of somatostatin analogues with long half-lives has made this prospect feasible. In this review, experimental data regarding the presence of somatostatin receptors and... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:34. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.33
    Published on: 11 Jul 2018  | Viewed:359  | Downloaded:37
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  • Review|Open Access

    Chitinase-3-like protein 1 as a predictor for the progression or regression of liver fibrosis

    Biaoyang Lin, Shengjun Wu, Yunhua Liu, Longgen Liu, Saadiya Mushtaq
    Liver fibrosis is a wound-healing response of liver cells to chronic injuries caused by viral infections, including hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), toxins, and alcohol abuse. The ability to stage diseases for treatment naïve patients to initiate proper medical procedures and predict the clinical causes of the disease or the treatment response is important given the increased prevalence of liver fibrosis caused by HBV, HCV and fatty liver diseases. CHI3L1 (chitinase-3-like protein 1, also known as YKL-40), which belongs to the chitinase family but lacks chitinolytic... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:48. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.19
    Published on: 17 Aug 2018  | Viewed:327  | Downloaded:25
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  • Review|Open Access

    New insights on hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and clinical aspects

    Claudio Puoti
    Primary liver cancer represents the 4th most common tumor in males (4% of all cancers) and the 7th most common tumor in females (2.3% of all cancers), with a prevalence of 53/100,000 in males and 22/100,000 in females (male-to-female ratio = 2:1). In the majority of the cases, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops in patients with cirrhosis and thus the risk factors for HCC and chronic liver disease are overlapping. Viral infections (hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus), alcohol and fat (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) represent the main risk factors for... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Liver Cancer
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:57. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.67
    Published on: 21 Sep 2018  | Viewed:320  | Downloaded:30
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Expression quantitative trait loci for PVT1 contributes to the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Ting Tian, Ci Song, Zhe-Ning Pu, Zi-Jun Ge, Cheng-Xiao Yu, Ji-Bin Liu, Zhi-Bin Hu
    Aim: Plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1), a long intergenic non-coding RNA, was overexpressed in liver cancer. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4733586 was identified as an expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) for PVT1 using bioinformatics analysis. This study was to assess the association of PVT1 eQTL with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis. Methods: A case-only study was performed to assess the association between SNP and HCC overall survival in 331 HCC patients with hepatitis B virus. Cox proportional hazard regression models were conducted for survival... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:27. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.24
    Published on: 29 Jun 2018  | Viewed:315  | Downloaded:19
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  • Review|Open Access

    Living donor liver transplantation for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in Japan

    Yasuhiko Sugawara, Hidekazu Yamamoto, Taizo Hibi
    Liver transplantation has now been an established treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. The Milan criteria have been accepted and applied widely in the world as an indication for deceased donor liver transplant. Due to the severe organ shortage, however, living donor liver transplant (LDLT) has accounted for the majority of transplantations in Japan and the other Asian countries/regions. LDLT cannot be limited by the restrictions imposed by the allocation system but depends on institutional criterion or case-by-case considerations. Accumulating data from a nationwide survey... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:33. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.69
    Published on: 10 Jul 2018  | Viewed:312  | Downloaded:17
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Endolymphatic immunotherapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: an update of our experience

    Marialuisa Lugaresi, Yuval Katz, Riccardo Bertelli, Noa Ruhrman, Lorenza Puviani, Giuseppe Cavallari, Caterina De Vinci, Giancarlo Pizza, Bruno Nardo
    Aim: We report an update of our experience on endolymphatic immunotherapy in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) not eligible for surgery. Methods: From 2003 to 2009 we enrolled 39 patients with advanced HCC not suitable for surgery. Patients underwent monthly endolymphatic injections of 1.5 × 106-3.0 × 106 IL-2-activated peripheral autologous lymphocytes and 250U of IL-2. Blood biochemistry every 3 months and imaging studies every 6 months were performed. Evaluation of the results was done according to clinical and pathological characters mainly including etiology,... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:67. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.88
    Published on: 18 Oct 2018  | Viewed:295  | Downloaded:9
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Adult African Americans undergoing cadaveric liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma within the Milan criteria have the lowest 5-year survival among all the ethnic groups in the United States: analysis of USA national data between January 2002

    Michele Molinari, Subhashini Ayloo, Allan Tsung, Patrick Bou Samra, Naudia Jonaissaint
    Aim: To investigate the potential effects of recipient ethnicity on the short and long-term outcomes of patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the United States. We performed a retrospective study using the standard transplant analysis and research (STAR) files with the primary aim of assessing short and long-term survival of different ethnic groups undergoing LT for HCC in the United States. Methods: The study population was represented by adults (age ≥ 18) who received a first-time cadaveric LT for HCC between 1 Jan 2002 and 30 Jun 2013.... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:56. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.71
    Published on: 20 Sep 2018  | Viewed:290  | Downloaded:15
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  • Review|Open Access

    Thermal ablation of large unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients

    Giovan Giuseppe Di Costanzo, Raffaella Tortora, Anna Opramolla, Marco Guarracino
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and lethal malignancies worldwide. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment, but less than 20%-30% of patients are good candidates. Actually, thermal ablation is considered the best treatment with curative intent for cirrhotic patients with unresectable HCC ≤ 3 cm. Unfortunately, radio frequency efficacy in obtaining the complete ablation of HCC nodules diminishes with increasing tumor size and local tumor progression is more frequent in larger nodules. To overcome these problems, higher-powered generators, different devices and... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:53. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.56
    Published on: 17 Sep 2018  | Viewed:241  | Downloaded:24
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  • Review|Open Access

    HCV-discovery to elimination, “myth or reality”

    Wasim Jafri, Basit Siddiqui, Safia Awan
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) was discovered in 1989, before that it was commonly known as transfusion associated non A non B hepatitis. It rapidly assumed the role of leading cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer and a leading indication for liver transplant globally. For over two decades the treatment was suboptimal with the use of pegylated interferon and ribavirin combination across all genotypes. The vaccine development also failed for over two decades. However a major breakthrough happened in December 2013 when the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first pan genotypic oral... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue What More We can do on Hepatitis C?
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:54. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.36
    Published on: 20 Sep 2018  | Viewed:236  | Downloaded:16
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  • Review|Open Access

    Stemness features in liver cancer

    Margherita Correnti, Richell Booijink, Giovanni Di Maira, Chiara Raggi, Fabio Marra
    Heterogeneity is a cardinal hallmark of cancer, including primary liver cancer (PLC), and occurs at different layers including putative cell-of-origin. Current evidence suggests that within cellular subpopulations in PLC there are stem-like cells, the cancer stem cells (CSCs). The CSC concept has been recently proposed as an explanation of such intra-tumor heterogeneity. According to this model, CSCs are responsible for tumor initiation, recurrence, metastasis as well as drug-resistance. However, although the CSC hypothesis is intriguing and supported by a large number of experimental... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Liver Cancer
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:69. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.96
    Published on: 5 Nov 2018  | Viewed:177  | Downloaded:9
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Hepatoma Research ISSN 2454-2520 (Online), ISSN 2394-5079 (Print)
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