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non-alcoholic fatty liver disease epidemiology microenvironment nonalcoholic steatohepatitis transplantation cholangiocarcinoma direct-acting antiviral immunotherapy hepatitis B hepatitis C liver resection imaging cancer stem cell diagnosis gene cirrhosis biomarker recurrence


Volume 7(2021) –

Cover Picture: Mutations involving CTNNB1, the gene encoding beta-catenin, and other molecular alterations that affect the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway are exceptionally common in hepatocellular carcinoma. Several of these alterations have also been associated with scarcity of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment and poor clinical response to immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. In light of these associations, tumor biomarkers of beta-catenin status could have the potential to serve as clinical predictors of immunotherapy outcome. This editorial review article summarizes recent pre-clinical and clinical research pertaining to associations between beta-catenin activation and diminished anti-tumor immunity. Potential non-invasive biomarkers that may provide a window into this oncogenic mechanism of immune evasion are also presented and discussed.
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