Special Issue Introduction
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the 5th most common cancer and the 3rd leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Major risk factors for HCC are chronic infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV). In people living with HIV (38 million), co-infection with HBV or HCV is not uncommon, due to shared transmission routes (parenteral, sexual, and perinatal). In HBV-endemic areas of Asia and Africa, more than a quarter of HIV+ individuals are co-infected with HBV, and in developing countries, a quarter of HIV+ individuals are co-infected with HCV. Conversely, about 1% of persons living with HBV infection (2.7 million) are co-infected with HIV. In the past two decades, thanks to the widespread use of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), people living with HIV are living longer lives. HCC, however, is arising as a common non-AIDS defining cancer in the aging HIV population, having quadrupled since 1996, when widespread use of ART was initiated. Epidemiological data suggest that HIV may also increase the risk of HCC in HBV- or HCV-infected patients, likely due to weakened immune responses against viruses and impaired immune surveillance on viral oncogenesis. HIV co-infection adds another pathological factor to the complex pathways leading to hepatocarcinogenesis. To fill knowledge gags in our understanding of the epidemiology and pathophysiological mechanism of HIV-associated HCC, we are inviting manuscripts for a special issue. We are seeking manuscripts on HIV-associated HCC burden and epidemiology; prevention strategies for reducing HIV-associated HCC; mechanisms of viral oncogenesis and immune dysregulation; viral, genetic, epigenetic, and proteomic biomarkers predictive of HCC risk in the HIV infected population; effects of antiretroviral treatment on HCC development. Studies on HIV and hepatitis virus co-infection, with or without HCC, are covered.
1. Susumu Eguchi Department of Surgery, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Nagasaki, Japan.
2. Mitsuhisa Takatsuki Department of Digestive and General Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan.
3. Kenneth O. Simbiri Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
4. Nahum Mendez-Sanchez Liver Research Unit, Medica Sur Clinic & Foundation, Mexico City, Mexico; Faculty of Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico.
5. Mtebe V. Majigo Institute of Allied Health Sciences, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
6. Juliet A. Shenge Department of Virology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
7. Sumaira Ayub Academic Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, King Edward Medical University / Mayo Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan.
The list is arranged in no particular order and being updated.