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Hepatoma Res 2021;7:[Accepted].10.20517/2394-5079.2021.89@The Author(s) 2021
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Pathology and molecular pathology of cholangiocarcinoma

Correspondence Address: Dr. Federica Pedica, Department of Experimental Oncology, Pathology Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan 20132, Italy. E-mail:


© The Author(s) 2021. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, for any purpose, even commercially, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.


Biliary tract cancers are a wide group of heterogeneous neoplasms of the biliary tree, composed of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma perihilar bile duct cancer and distal bile duct cancer, according to location. The variability in location reflects the different morphologies and molecular alterations. In particular, intrahepatic peripheral mass forming cholangiocarcinoma is represented by the “small duct type” cholangiocarcinoma, which is different from the “large duct type” cholangiocarcinoma that, although intrahepatic, behaves similar to extrahepatic bile duct cancers, perihilar and distal ones. Recently, molecular targetable alterations, mainly FGFR2 fusions and IDH1 mutations, have been described, mostly in the intrahepatic “small duct type” subgroup and have opened the way, together with rarer targetable alterations, for personalisation of therapy also in these aggressive neoplasms.

Cite This Article

Pedica F, Grassini G. Pathology and molecular pathology of cholangiocarcinoma. Hepatoma Res 2021;7:[Accept].

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