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Hepatoma Res 2015;1:107-8.10.4103/2394-5079.161626© 2015 Hepatoma Research
Open AccessTopic: Natural Products and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Natural products and hepatocellular carcinoma

Food Toxicology and Contaminants Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo 12622, Egypt

Correspondence Address: Prof. Mosaad A. Abdel-Wahhab, Food Toxicology and Contaminants Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo 12622, Egypt. E-mail: mosaad_abdelwahhab@yahoo.com

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    This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/), which allows others to remix, tweak and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major health problem, with more than 500,000 cases diagnosed annually. It is also an important cause of human mortality in the world. The incidence of HCC is rising due to the widespread of hepatitis and alcoholism, which may be caused by infection, injury, exposure to drugs or toxic compounds, autoimmunity, or genetic defect that leads to the deposition of harmful substances.[1]

    In the broadest sense, natural products (NPs) are chemical compounds or substances produced by a living organism found in nature.[2,3] Consequently, NPs can be extracted from animals, plants, microbes and marine organisms.[4,5] NPs can be considered as a coin with two sides, which have to be considered in the application of modern or alternative medicine. Some NPs have beneficial effects, while some others have toxic effects. For example, mycotoxins and some other microbial toxins are carcinogenic and the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified several mycotoxins as hepatocarcinogenic.[6] Exposure to some mycotoxins resulted in liver cancer,[7-10] especially aflatoxin B1, which is a mutagenic natural compound that contaminate many food sources in some parts of Africa and Asia and is recognized as one of hepatocarcinogens in humans and many animal species.[7,11]

    The use of herbal medicines can be traced back several thousand years ago in ancient China, ancient Egypt and ancient Rome. Recent research pointed out an increasing interest concerning the health benefits of a diet rich in NPs.[12] NPs can act as chemoprotective agents against common liver diseases, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer, fatty liver diseases and gallstones.[1]

    In General, NPs play a key role in drug discovery and are also a prolific source of novel lead compounds or pharmacophores for medicinal chemistry. Although naturally active substances are usually good lead compounds, most of them can hardly satisfy the demands for druggability. Hence, these structural phenotypes have to be modified and optimized to overcome existing deficiencies and shortcomings.[13]

    Although HCC is always hard to treat, this special issue aims to gather updated progress in this important area and shed the light on the possibility to introduce a new drug based on the benefits of NPs.

    Financial support and sponsorship

    Nil.

    Conflict of interest

    TThere is no conflict of interest.

    References

    • 1. Ling CQ, Chiu JH, Oh B, Cho WCS. Natural products for liver diseases: basic, clinical, and translational research. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012;2012:794343.

    • 2. Cutler SJ, Cutler HG. Biologically active natural products: pharmaceuticals. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2000.

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    • 6. International Agency for Research on Cancer. Some naturally occurring substances: food items, constituents, heterocyclic aromatic amines, mycotoxins. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Lyon: IARC; 1993. pp. 249-395.

    • 7. Abdel-Wahhab MA, Hassan NS, El-Kady AA, Khadrawy AY, El-Nekeety AA, Mohamed SR, Sharaf HA, Mannaa FA. Red ginseng extract protects against aflatoxin B1 and fumonisins-induced hepatic pre-cancerous lesions in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2010;48:733-42.

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    • 8. Abdel-Wahhab MA, Ibrahim AA, El-Nekeety AA, Hassan NS, Mohamed AA. Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer extract counteracts the oxidative stress in rats fed multi-mycotoxins-contaminated diet. Comun Sci 2012;3:143-53.

    • 9. Abdel-Wahhab MA, El-Denshary ES, El-Nekeety AA, Hassan NS, Abu-Salem FM, Sarhan NAZ, Rihn BH. Impact of soy isoflavones on aflatoxin-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats. General Health Med Sci 2014;1:9-14.

    • 10. Abdel-Wahhab MA, Aljawish A, El-Nekeety AA, Abdel-Aiezm SH, Abdel-Kader HAM, Rihn BH, Joubert O. Chitosan nano particles and quercetin modulate gene expression and prevent the genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 in rat liver. Toxicol Rep 2015;2:737-47.

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    • 11. Hassan AM, Abdel-Aziem SH, Abdel-Wahhab MA. Modulation of DNA damage and alteration of gene expression during aflatoxicosis via dietary supplementation of Spirulina (Arthrospira) and whey protein concentrate. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2012;79:294-300.

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    • 12. Marginȃ D, Ilie M, Grȃdinaru D, Androutsopoulos VP, Kouretas D, Tsatsakis AM. Natural products-friends or foes? Toxicol Lett 2015;236:154-67.

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