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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Gender differences in hepatocellular cancer: disparities in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis and liver transplantation

    Eric M. Wu, Linda L. Wong, Brenda Y. Hernandez, Jun-Fang Ji, Wei Jia, Sandi A. Kwee, Sumodh Kalathil
    Aim: Worldwide, hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer death and occurs 3 times more commonly in males than females. Current surveillance practices do not fully address gender differences in HCC. Methods: Clinical characteristics and survival were compared between males and females using a prospectively collected database of HCC patients. Results: In a cohort of 1206 patients, 307 (25%) were female who presented with older age, more non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH), family history of HCC, and hypertension. Males (75%) were more likely... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:66. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.87
    Published on: 18 Oct 2018  | Viewed:0  | Downloaded:0
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Endolymphatic immunotherapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: an update of our experience

    Marialuisa Lugaresi, Yuval Katz, Riccardo Bertelli, Noa Ruhrman, Lorenza Puviani, Giuseppe Cavallari, Caterina De Vinci, Giancarlo Pizza, Bruno Nardo
    Aim: We report an update of our experience on endolymphatic immunotherapy in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) not eligible for surgery. Methods: From 2003 to 2009 we enrolled 39 patients with advanced HCC not suitable for surgery. Patients underwent monthly endolymphatic injections of 1.5 × 106-3.0 × 106 IL-2-activated peripheral autologous lymphocytes and 250U of IL-2. Blood biochemistry every 3 months and imaging studies every 6 months were performed. Evaluation of the results was done according to clinical and pathological characters mainly including etiology,... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:67. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.88
    Published on: 18 Oct 2018  | Viewed:0  | Downloaded:0
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  • Review|Open Access

    New and old biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Georgios Zacharakis, Ahmad Aleid, Khaled K Aldossari
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a significant cause of mortality in patients with chronic liver disease around the world. Development of biomarkers for early HCC detection is a primary public health goal to decrease mortality. The ideal biomarkers should be highly sensitive and specific for surveillance of high-risk populations and early detection of HCC and also be able to predict therapeutic outcome and provide a prognosis on survival. Currently, the new biomarkers do not perform better than the conventional ones such as alpha-fetoprotein in such a way that they could be widely adopted... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:65. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.76
    Published on: 17 Oct 2018  | Viewed:36  | Downloaded:0
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  • Review|Open Access

    HCV elimination: breaking down the barriers to prison based care

    Timothy Papaluca, Alexander Thompson
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a major public health threat worldwide, responsible for 500,000 deaths annually; hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains one of the major causes of HCV-related mortality. The global prevalence of HCV is approximately 1.0%, and in developed countries, injecting drug use continues to be the primary risk factor in incident cases. Targeted treatment of people who inject drugs (PWID) is important for achieving the WHO goals of eliminating viral hepatitis, which will have a significant impact on reducing HCC rates. Due to the close relationship between injecting... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue What More We can do on Hepatitis C?
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:64. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.53
    Published on: 17 Oct 2018  | Viewed:31  | Downloaded:0
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  • Review|Open Access

    Alpha-fetoprotein as a predictor of hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence following liver transplantation

    Evangelia M. Fatourou, Abid R. Suddle, Michael A. Heneghan
    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) has been increasingly recognised as a valuable marker in predicting HCC recurrence post-liver transplantation. Moreover, its secretion has been associated with poor histological tumour characteristics as it reflects an aggressive tumour biological behaviour. This review aims to summarise the emerging evidence on the use of AFP either as an independent marker, or as a variable incorporated into prognostic models. For this purpose, an electronic PubMed literature search was performed. Due to the heterogeneity of the reported studies, drawing clear conclusions about the... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:63. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.62
    Published on: 10 Oct 2018  | Viewed:253  | Downloaded:18
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  • Review|Open Access

    Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma - non-cancer factors and implications for improving outcome beyond standard tumor criteria

    Arno Kornberg, Martina Schernhammer
    Liver transplantation (LT) is recognized as best treatment option in patients with early hepatocellular cancer (HCC) in underlying liver cirrhosis. Apart from tumor size and number implemented in the Milan criteria, which are current worldwide standards for patient selection, several biological tumor factors have been identified to affect cancer-specific outcome. In particular, grading and vascular tumor invasions were shown to correlate with aggressive biological tumor behavior and poor survival following LT. Identifying tumors with favorable biology is one important approach for expanding... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:60. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.86
    Published on: 29 Sep 2018  | Viewed:262  | Downloaded:12
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen in predicting recurrence of hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation

    James Fung, Danny Ka-Ho Wong, Yasuhito Tanaka, Regina Lo, Tiffany Wong, Kenneth Siu-Ho Chok, Albert Chi-Yan Chan, Tan-To Cheung, Wing-Chiu Dai, Kelvin Ng, Kevin Ng, Man Kwan, Irene Ng, Wai-Kay Seto, Ching-Lung Lai, Man-Fung Yuen, Chung-Mau Lo
    Aim: Recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after liver transplantation (LT) for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) can be associated with reappearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The current study determined the significance of HBsAg qualitatively and quantitatively using a highly sensitive assay in recurrent HCC after transplantation. Methods: Consecutive patients with HBV-related HCC with LT were included. Oral nucleos(t)ide analogues without hepatitis B immune globulin were used as hepatitis B virus (HBV) prophylaxis. Quantitative HBsAg levels were performed at time of... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:62. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.92
    Published on: 29 Sep 2018  | Viewed:307  | Downloaded:13
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Novel diagnosis and therapy for hepatoma targeting HBV-related carcinogenesis through alternative splicing of FIR (PUF60)/FIRΔexon2

    Kazuyuki Matsushita, Tyuji Hoshino
    Aim: Disturbed alternative splicing of far upstream element-binding protein-interacting repressor (FIR) was found to be unable to repress c-Myc transcription and so it might be important for suppressing tumor development. FIR is a splicing variant of poly (U)-binding-splicing factor (PUF60), and forms complex with other splicing factors. FIR/PUF60 is a splicing factor of U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein auxiliary factor family, Thus FIR/PUF60 is a multifunctional protein. The expression of exon2-lacking splicing variant of FIR, FIRΔexon2, is elevated in many cancer tissues and promotes... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:61. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.81
    Published on: 29 Sep 2018  | Viewed:352  | Downloaded:15
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  • Review|Open Access

    Role of the contrast-enhanced ultrasoud in the diagnosis of HCC in cirrhotic liver

    Francesco Loria, Antonello Parlati, Giuseppe Loria, Luciano Frosina, Giuseppe Crea, Salvatore Basile, Caterina Alessio, Giuseppe Di Leo, Adele De Caridi, Vittorio Maschio, Nicola Zizzi, Orazio Trapuzzano, Salvatore Giuseppe Galea
    The development of second generation ultrasound (US) contrast-medium and specific imaging techniques with dedicated softwares, allows to observe the liver perfusion in real time, becoming an useful and less invasive method to describe precisely the vascularization of hepatic lesions. This significantly increased the ability of US to detect and characterize focal liver lesions. The aim of this review article is to evaluate the role of contrast enhancement US in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic liver, with reference to the guidelines of American Association for the Study... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Liver Cancer
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:59. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.75
    Published on: 28 Sep 2018  | Viewed:302  | Downloaded:21
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  • Review|Open Access

    Staging of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Sedat Karademir
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. In contrast to other cancers, survival of patients with HCC is determined by the extent of the tumor in addition to underlying liver disease and its functional reserve. From risk factors to management, HCC reveals a considerable geographic and institutional variation throughout the world. Although many staging and/or scoring systems have been proposed, each prognostic system has several benefits and limitations on its own. Therefore, there is currently no globally accepted system for HCC due to the... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:58. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.40
    Published on: 26 Sep 2018  | Viewed:215  | Downloaded:10
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  • Review|Open Access

    New insights on hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and clinical aspects

    Claudio Puoti
    Primary liver cancer represents the 4th most common tumor in males (4% of all cancers) and the 7th most common tumor in females (2.3% of all cancers), with a prevalence of 53/100,000 in males and 22/100,000 in females (male-to-female ratio = 2:1). In the majority of the cases, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops in patients with cirrhosis and thus the risk factors for HCC and chronic liver disease are overlapping. Viral infections (hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus), alcohol and fat (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) represent the main risk factors for... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Liver Cancer
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:57. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.67
    Published on: 21 Sep 2018  | Viewed:283  | Downloaded:22
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  • Review|Open Access

    Mechanisms and clinical behavior of hepatocellular carcinoma in HBV and HCV infection and alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Riccardo Nevola, Luca Rinaldi, Mauro Giordano, Aldo Marrone, Luigi Elio Adinolfi
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the main tumor of the liver and is the sixth most frequently diagnosed tumor in the world. It is the evolution of chronic hepatic injury secondary to different etiologies. Chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection, chronic alcoholic hepatitis, as well as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are the most common causes behind the development of HCC. The introduction of effective prophylaxis and treatment against hepatitis B, the recent use of highly effective hepatitis C treatments, as well as lifestyle changes observed in recent decades in the... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:55. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.38
    Published on: 20 Sep 2018  | Viewed:318  | Downloaded:23
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  • Review|Open Access

    HCV-discovery to elimination, “myth or reality”

    Wasim Jafri, Basit Siddiqui, Safia Awan
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) was discovered in 1989, before that it was commonly known as transfusion associated non A non B hepatitis. It rapidly assumed the role of leading cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer and a leading indication for liver transplant globally. For over two decades the treatment was suboptimal with the use of pegylated interferon and ribavirin combination across all genotypes. The vaccine development also failed for over two decades. However a major breakthrough happened in December 2013 when the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first pan genotypic oral... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue What More We can do on Hepatitis C?
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:54. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.36
    Published on: 20 Sep 2018  | Viewed:202  | Downloaded:9
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Adult African Americans undergoing cadaveric liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma within the Milan criteria have the lowest 5-year survival among all the ethnic groups in the United States: analysis of USA national data between January 2002

    Michele Molinari, Subhashini Ayloo, Allan Tsung, Patrick Bou Samra, Naudia Jonaissaint
    Aim: To investigate the potential effects of recipient ethnicity on the short and long-term outcomes of patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the United States. We performed a retrospective study using the standard transplant analysis and research (STAR) files with the primary aim of assessing short and long-term survival of different ethnic groups undergoing LT for HCC in the United States. Methods: The study population was represented by adults (age ≥ 18) who received a first-time cadaveric LT for HCC between 1 Jan 2002 and 30 Jun 2013.... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:56. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.71
    Published on: 20 Sep 2018  | Viewed:195  | Downloaded:9
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  • Review|Open Access

    Thermal ablation of large unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients

    Giovan Giuseppe Di Costanzo, Raffaella Tortora, Anna Opramolla, Marco Guarracino
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and lethal malignancies worldwide. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment, but less than 20%-30% of patients are good candidates. Actually, thermal ablation is considered the best treatment with curative intent for cirrhotic patients with unresectable HCC ≤ 3 cm. Unfortunately, radio frequency efficacy in obtaining the complete ablation of HCC nodules diminishes with increasing tumor size and local tumor progression is more frequent in larger nodules. To overcome these problems, higher-powered generators, different devices and... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:53. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.56
    Published on: 17 Sep 2018  | Viewed:198  | Downloaded:20
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  • Review|Open Access

    The fibroblast growth factor receptor pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Joycelyn Jie Xin Lee, Su Pin Choo
    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the third most common cause of cancer-related death globally and portends a poor prognosis. The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) pathway is increasingly acknowledged to play a role in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is postulated to be upregulated as a mechanism of resistance to anti-VEGF treatment. We attempt to review the importance of the FGFR pathway in HCC oncogenesis, as well as the current clinical evidence on the efficacy and safety of FGFR pathway inhibitors in HCC. Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:52. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.42
    Published on: 13 Sep 2018  | Viewed:306  | Downloaded:32
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  • Review|Open Access

    Cancer immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Joo-Ho Lee, Soo-Yeon Oh, Jin Yong Kim, Naoshi Nishida
    Most hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) arise on a background of chronically inflamed liver, and thus are considered typical immunogenic cancers. Although there have been advances in treatment options for HCC, many patients still struggle with a limited chance of survival requiring further innovative approach. Especially for the advanced HCC, many other molecular targeted therapies had been evaluated without success. Based on the immunological mechanisms thought to be acting during HCC development, the effects of diverse immunomodulatory regimens such as therapeutic vaccination, immune... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:51. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.78
    Published on: 10 Sep 2018  | Viewed:511  | Downloaded:45
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  • Review|Open Access

    Hepatic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Shun Yamaguchi, Taichiro Kosaka, Susumu Eguchi
    Hepatic resection has become the standard treatment of primary liver cancer. Indications for hepatic resection in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) vary greatly between Japan and other countries because the clinical practice guidelines for HCC defined by the Japan Society of Hepatology differ from the EASL-EORTC clinical practice guidelines. Hepatic resection is not recommended as a treatment for the patients at Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage B. Otherwise, there are many surgeons/clinicians who believe that not all HCC patients at BCLC stage B should be excluded from... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:50. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.68
    Published on: 22 Aug 2018  | Viewed:625  | Downloaded:46
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  • Review|Open Access

    Hypofractionated ablative radiation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: practical considerations and review of the literature

    Marsha Reyngold, Eugene J. Koay, Christopher H. Crane
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy. The prognosis for patients who present with inoperable primary liver tumors is poor with median survival times of 12 months or less. Tumor-related liver failure is a common cause of mortality, underscoring the importance of local control. Recent advancements in external beam radiation therapy delivery techniques have enabled dose escalation that in turn has significantly improved local control and has allowed radiation therapy to emerge as an effective modality in this setting. In this review, we outline the... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:49. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.84
    Published on: 20 Aug 2018  | Viewed:926  | Downloaded:77
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  • Review|Open Access

    Chitinase-3-like protein 1 as a predictor for the progression or regression of liver fibrosis

    Biaoyang Lin, Shengjun Wu, Yunhua Liu, Longgen Liu, Saadiya Mushtaq
    Liver fibrosis is a wound-healing response of liver cells to chronic injuries caused by viral infections, including hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), toxins, and alcohol abuse. The ability to stage diseases for treatment naïve patients to initiate proper medical procedures and predict the clinical causes of the disease or the treatment response is important given the increased prevalence of liver fibrosis caused by HBV, HCV and fatty liver diseases. CHI3L1 (chitinase-3-like protein 1, also known as YKL-40), which belongs to the chitinase family but lacks chitinolytic... Read more
    Hepatoma Res 2018;4:48. | doi:10.20517/2394-5079.2018.19
    Published on: 17 Aug 2018  | Viewed:287  | Downloaded:20
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Hepatoma Research ISSN 2454-2520 (Online), ISSN 2394-5079 (Print)
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